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119 terms

Lab Midterm Study Guides

EX 9, 10, 11, Joints, Skeletal System Quiz
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The skeleton is constructed of two types of tissue
Bone and cartilage
Bones of the skeleton are connected at junctions called
Articulations
Vertebrae belong to this category of bones
Irregular
Which of the following bone markings helps form joints
Head
This is a passageway for blood vessels and nerves
Foramen
The diaphysis of a long bone is covered by
Periosteum
What are the telescoping tubes of matrix (concentric lamellae) with their central canals that form a large part of compact bone
Osteons
Bones are somewhat flexible due to
Collagen fibers in the matrix
An example of a sesamoid bone is the
Patella
A trochanter is a
Large irregularly shaped projection
A condyle differs from an epicondyle in that the condyle
Is a raised area above a joint
In adults, _______ marrow fills the central canal of long bones, and ________ marrow is found in the epiphyses
Yellow, yellow
This membrane lines the shaft of long bones, and covers the trabeculae of spongy bone
Endosteum
Curves are concave anterior
Thoracic and sacral (Kyphosis)
Curves are convex and anterior
Lumbar and cervical (Lordosis)
What kind of tissue comprises the epiphyseal plate of bones
Hyaline cartilage
The axial skeleton includes all of the following except the
Pectoral and pelvic girdles
The cranial bones that house the organs of hearing are the ______ bones
Sphenoid
The midline suture marking the articulation of the two parietal bones is called the _________ suture
Sagittal
The foramen magnum is located in which bone of the skull
Occipital
These are the cheek bones of the face
Zygomatics
The transverse processes of vertebrae point ________, while the spinous process points ________
Laterally, posteriorly
The _______ is a median posterior projection arising at the junction of two laminae of the vertebral body
Spinous process
Costal facets are found on the ________ vertebrae
Thoracic
How many pairs of ribs are there
12
This facial bone forms part of the nasal septum
Vomer
Blood vessels and nerves pass through the mental foramen on the
Mandible
This bone does not articulate with any other bone in the body
Hyoid
You pick up a vertebra to identify it and note that the transverse processes contain foramina. This unique feature identifies the vertebra as coming from the _________ region of the vertebral column
Cervical
Intervertebral discs are absent from these vertebrae
Atlas and axis
This primary curvature of the spine is located in the chest region
Thoracic
The sella turcica, part of which surrounds the pituitary gland is part of the ________ bone
Sphenoid
Seven pairs of ribs articulate _________ with the sternum
Directly via costal cartilages
These important bone markings are located on the sternum
Jugular notch and xiphisternal joint
This part of the rib articulates with the appropriate vertebra
Head
These bones form the shoulder girdle
Clavicle and scapula
Name the bone or bones of the forearm
Radius and ulna
The glenoid cavity of the scapula receives the
Humerus
These are major sites of muscle attachment on the femur
Greater and lesser trochanters
This bone bears the medial malleolus
Tibia
These are the ankle bones
Tarsals
Little bones of the fingers and toes are called the
Phalanges
The coxal bones articulate with each other at the
Pubic symphysis
This part of the coxal bone bears your weight when you sit
Ischial tuberosity
The acromial end of the clavicle articulates with the
Scapula
This/these fossa(e) of the scapula contain muscles that stabilize the
All of the above
The radius articulates with this condyle of the humerus
Capitulum
Extension (or straightening) of the elbow stops when the proximal end of the ulna encounters the
Olecranon fossa of the humerus
The exceptional flexibility of the shoulder girdle is due, in part, to the
Strong ligament that holds the head of the humerus to its socket
This bone articulates with the acetabulum
Femur
The head of the fibula articulates with the
Tibia
The leg bones articulate with this ankle bone and transfer weight to the foot
Calcaneus
Which limb contains more bones
Lower
These are characteristics of the male pelvis
The sacrum curves ventrally into the pelvic outlet
Name the large bone of the thigh
Femur
Using the structural classification of joints, the shoulder is a ________ joint
Synovial
Using the functional classification of joints, the intervertebral joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae is a(n) ________ joint
Amphiarthrotic (slightly movable)
The articular cartilage in synovial joints best resembles
Hyaline cartilage
Which joint can move in only two planes
Metacarpophalangeal
Which statement is true about synovial joints
Ball and socket joints are multiaxial
Muscles are strung across joints and can therefore move them. The insertion of a muscle
Moves toward the origin during contraction
Flexion and extension are usually movements in the ________ plane(s) of the body
Sagittal
Pronation and supination are movements of the
Palm of the hand
you are asked to demonstrate plantar flexion. To do this you must move your
Ankle
This structure contributes to stability of the hip joint
Acetabular labrum
In this type of cartilaginous joint, bones are connected by fibrocartilage. The joint is amphiarthrotic
Symphysis
This special type of joint holds the teeth in place
Gomphosis
This joint of the body has the greatest range of movement
Shoulder
The _______ joint is an immovable joint that holds bones of the axial skeleton tightly together to protect the ______
Suture, brain
Which of the following will reduce friction in synovial joints?
articular cartilage, bursae and synovial fluid
Ligaments reinforce joints by holding the bones together. What tissue type are ligaments?
Dense regular connective tissue
What is true about the movement of properties of the following joints
All synovial joints are freely movable
A joint can only perform these movements: flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. It is therefore a _______ joint
Biaxial
The biceps branchii muscle flexes the elbow. What could you do to make the elbow extend
Contract a muscle on the posterior side of the elbow (Tricep)
The lining of the morrow cavity
Endosteum
Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix
Osteoclasts
Layers of bone matrix
Lamellae
Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone
Canaliculi
cells that can build bony matrix
Osteoblasts
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of
Fat
Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints
Ramus
Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include
Drinking milk
Which of the following is not a funciton of the skeletal system
Communication
What is the structural unit of compact bone
The osteon
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of
Blood vessels and nerve fibers
What are the small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called
Lacunae
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream
Parathyroid hormone
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels
Thyroid
Which forms the largest portion of the coxal bone
Ilium
The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the
Sagittal
the pituitary gland is housed in the
Sella turcica of the sphenoid
Attach to the ribs
Thoracic
Receives the most stress
Lumbar
Transverse foramina present
Cervical
Articulates with the hip bones of the pelvis
Sacrum
No canals or foramen present
Coccyx
Includes the atlas and the axis
Cervical
Contains the joint that allows you to rotate your head "no"
Cervical
What is the major function of the intervertebral discs
Absorb shock
Which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body
The lumbar region
Thoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they have
Facets for attachment of ribs
Which bone contains diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a tuberosity near its middle and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone
Humerus
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called
Bursae
The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called
Cruciate ligaments
Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of
Hyperextension
What are menisci
Semilunar cartilage pads
What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called
Abduction
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the
Feet
Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of arthritis
Osteoarthritis
What can cause gouty arthritis
Excessive blood levels of uric acid depositied as crystals in the soft tissue joints
Skull bones are
Flat
The humerus is
Long
The ribs are
Flat
The vertebrae are
Irregular
The phalanges are
Long
The patella is
Sesamoid
The tarsals are
Short
Which of the following is not part of the synovial joint?
Tendon sheath
Which of the following bones is not weight bearing
Fibula