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44 terms

Bio 105, chapters 1-5

chapters 2 & 3
STUDY
PLAY
atom
smallest particle of an element
proton
positively charged particle of an atom
neutron
neutral particle of an atom
electron
negatively charged particle of an atom
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
radioisotope
an unstable isotope of an element, which undergoes radioactive decay
ion
An electrically charged atom that has gained or lost electrons
element
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
covalent bond
bond formed by the SHARING of electrons between atoms
ionic bond
bond formed by the TRANSFERING of electrons from one atom to another
hydrogen bond
weak bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to negatively charged atoms
hydrophilic
"water loving"
hydrophobic
"water hating"
peptide bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids
polarity
property of a molecule with oppositely charged ends. because of it, water is able to dissolve many different substances
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
polar molecule
A molecule that has electrically charged areas.
macromolecule
large molecules
lipid
macromolecules used for energy storage, cell membranes, and waterproofing
fatty acid
Type of lipid, A long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end
phospholipid
a lipid made of phosphate group (hydrophilic head) and two fatty acids (hydrophobic tails). forms cell membrane.
cholesterol
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
protien
polymer made up of amino acid monomers
carbohydrate
sugar molecules (monosaccharides AND polysaccharides)
amino acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules
polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
functional groups
determines a molecule's function. is hydrphilic. includes the hodroxl, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, phosphate groups.
dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
hydrolysis
breaks down molecules by adding water to them
scientific method
A research method whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis stated, and hypothesis is tested
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
eukaryotic
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. either unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
prokaryotic
describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria.
enzymes
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.
acid
has a low pH, donates H(+) ions
base
has a high pH, accepts H(+) ions
organic molecule
carbon-based molecule
polymers
long chains of monomers
monomers
building blocks of polymers
monosaccharide
single sugar molecule
starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose. for energy
glycogen
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers. for energy
cellulose
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls. Tougher than other polysaccharides. for structure
disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.