The outermost rigid layer of the Earth. It is made up of two parts, the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle. The lithosphere is divided into pieces called TECTONIC PLATES.
A soft layer of the mantle on which pieces of the lithosphere move. It is made of solid rock that, like putty, flows slowly (as fast as your fingernails grow). It is known as the "weak sphere".
Beneath the Asthenosphere and is the strong lower part of the mantle. It extends down to the Earth's core and is known as the "middle sphere".
OUTER CORE is:
The liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core.
INNER CORE is:
The solid, dense center of our planet that extends from the bottom of the outer core to the center of the Earth.
TECTONIC PLATES are:
Pieces of the lithosphere that move around on top of the Asthenosphere
How many major TECTONIC PLATES are there?
10 - The Pacific Plate, North American Plate, Cocos Plate, Nazca Plate, South American plate, African Plate, Eurasian Plate, Indian Plate, Australian Plate and Antarctic Plate
Tectonic plates can be made up entirely of continental crust, or entirely of oceanic crust, or of both continental and oceanic crust. True or False?
Tectonic plates are all roughly the same size. True or False
False. They vary significantly in size.
Define SEISMIC WAVES:
They are vibrations that travel through the Earth. Depending on the density and strength of material they pass through, seismic wave travel at different speeds - faster through solid rock than through liquid. They use these waves to help determine the earth's composition. Seismic waves are also measured to see how strong an earthquake was.
CONTINENTAL DRIFT is:
The theory that continents can drift apart from one another and have done so in the past.
Wrote about his theory, Continental Drift.
All the separate continents of today were once joined in a single landmass that was called Pangea, meaning "all earth" in Greek. There was one huge continents 245 million years ago, but have drifted to their current locations.
Process by which new oceanic lithosphere is created as older materials are pulled away.
Name 4 pieces of evidence to prove PANGEA/CONTINENTAL DRIFT
1. Same index fossils on different continents 2. Mountains line up 3. Glacier scars line up 4. They all fit together like a puzzle
PLATE TECTONICS is:
The theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around on top of the asthenosphere.
PLATE MOTION is affected by:
Heat and gravity.
Name 3 ideas why plates move:
1. RIDGE PUSH 2. CONVECTION 3. SLAB PULL
CONVECTION happens when:
hot materials from the deep Earth rise while cooler material near the surface sinks. When warmer material cools, it becomes denser and begins to sink back down, dragging plates sideways.
RIDGE PUSH happens when:
The ocean lithosphere is higher than it is where it sinks beneath continental lithosphere, making oceanic plates slide down.
SLAB PULL happens when:
the denser oceanic lithosphere sinks and pulls the rest of the tectonic plate with it.
Form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward.
Where tectonic forces put enough tension on the Earth's crust that lot of normal faults are created. Then the faulting causes large blocks of the Earth's crust to drop down relative to other blocks. Ex. The Tetons
When oceanic and continental plates collide. Most volcanic mountains are formed in subduction zones and are the result of molten rock erupting onto the Earth's surface. Volcanic mountains are formed from new material being added to the Earth's surface.