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The study of blood is


INTO the BLOOD- _______ from the lungs, nutrients from the small intestines


OUT OF the BLOOD- _____ goes out the kidneys, skin and large intestine


Blood carries substances to the cells by putting them into the interstitial fluid so it is the _____


The interstitial fluid flows between cells in the interstitial space so it is the _____


Transport- oxygen, nutrients, waste
Protection- clotting, immunity = white blood cells (WBC), interferon, complement
are all Functions of __________


Characteristics of blood:
Alkaline: 7.4 pH avg.
8 % of body weight (if you weighted 100 pounds, and lost all your blood you would lose 8 pounds)
Blood volume: 1.2 gallon female, 1.5 gallon male
Temperature of the blood is a little higher then body temperature, WHY?

Plasma, cells

If Blood is spun down (centrifuged), we see two parts: ______ and ______

Red blood cells, white blood cells

Cells of the blood are mostly _____ (RBCs). The rest, only 1%, is basically platelets and ____ (WBCs)

42, 47

Centrifuging blood forces cells to separate from plasma.
Hematocrit is the % of total volume of cells
Normal crit = females ____ avg., males ___ avg.

red blood cell

Hematocrit of 40 means that 40 % of the blood is __ __ __s


Does a doctor do a hematocrit to determine the amount of WBCs or platelets? YES NO

white blood cell

What is in the buffy coat __ __ __s after Centrifuging blood forces cells to separate from plasma?

red blood cell

Low crit =Anemia, decreased __ __ __s
High crit = Polycythemia


Mature RBCs are called _______ (red, cells)
Contains oxygen-carrying protein called hemoglobin. Anatomy- 7.5 microns, biconcave disc- can get into small places. Gets energy anaerobically So it doesn't need the oxygen that it's carrying.


__________count ("Tic") measures the rate of erythropoiesis and so can give an indication of RBC creation.


______ tic count = red bone marrow NOT working. Cause = nutritional deficiency or leukemia


______ tic count = usually good sign, response to iron therapy


RBC count & hemoglobin concentration indicate the amount of _____ the blood can carry


RBCs live for ____ days


membrane fragility -- lysis in narrow channels in the spleen through a process called ____________

15, 14

Hemoglobin concentration of whole blood
men avg. ____; women avg. ___

5.5, 5

RBC count
men _____ million avg.; women _____ million avg.


Cellular oxygen deficiency is _____ This can cause cell death (necrosis)


_______ is a form of hypoxia due to obstruction of blood flow, some diseases related to hypoxia: stroke, trauma, heart attack, multiple organ failures, cancer, respiratory diseases, and hemorrhagic stroke.


This blood type can receive any other blood type.


This blood type can give blood to any other blood type.


massive clumping of blood


Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophiles
are all _________, and White blood cells (leukocytes ). These types stain.


Lymphocytes, and Monocytes are all _________, and White blood cells (leukocytes ). And do not stain.


Circulating WBCs do not stay in bloodstream
granulocytes leave in 8 hours
monocytes leave and transform into macrophages
WBCs provide long-term ______lasting decades to fight off invaders*


This cell stains dark violet, basic stains


This cell stains - pink-orange
pink stain


This cell stains Reddish to violet granules in cytoplasm.
Older neutrophils are called polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes or "POLYS"
neutral stain


(increase in bacterial infections)
*phagocytosis of bacteria
releases antimicrobial chemicals*


(increase in parasitic infections or allergies)
phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes, allergens & inflammatory chemicals
release enzymes destroy parasites such as worms


(increase in chicken pox, sinusitis, diabetes)
*secrete histamine (vasodilator)
secrete heparin (anticoagulant)*


the cops of the body
The blood is a transport system (cop car) for monocytes as they fight infection in tissues
They go into tissue and become macrophages (macro= big, phage= eater)


cytoplasm stains and forms a blue rim around the cell
B cells, T cells and Killer cells

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