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This covers chapter 1 and chapter 18 in the holt biology book for academic students.


the study of living things

Study of cancer

what is oncology

Study of insects

what is entomology

Study of birds

what is ornithology

Study of genes

what is genetics

study of fish

what is Ichthyology

study of reptiles

what is herpetology

1. Requirement for food and energy 2. Growth 3. Reproduction 4. Response to stimuli 5. Homeostasis 6. Organized (cells)

Characteristics of life

1.8 million different organisms on earth

What is the number of organisms currently on earth?


the science of naming, classifying, and organizing all living things into groups based on similarity.

Taxonomical Hierarchy

a system for organizing and classifying organisms


What is the taxonomical hierarchy's categories?


3 domains


a group that consists of all modern day bacteria (salmonella, e-coli)


a group of bacteria unique from the modern bacteria


most diverse domain containing all organisms that are not bacteria

Animalia- Plantae-Fungi-Protista

Name the 4 kingdoms


made of eukaryotic cells, multicellular, consumer


made of eukaryotic cells, multicellular, producer


the process of converting solar energy into chemical energy requies pigment chlorophylll


made of eukaryotic cells, multicellular, consumer


made of eukaryotic cells, unicellular, consumers and producers

1. Algae- plant, 2. Protozoans- animal

Protista has two subgroups

Echinodermata-starfish/sand dollars Arthropoda-insects, spiders, and crabs Mollusca- snails, octopus, and squid Chordata-humans, frogs, birds

Name 4 animal phylums

Chondrichthyes-sharks, aves-birds, reptiles- snakes and lizards amphibians-frogs and salamanders mammels- humans, elephants, and seals

Phylum Chordata 8 classes give 5

Cetacia- Whales and dolphins Carnivora-Dogs, Cats and birds Rodentia-Rats, mice, and squirrels Chiroptera - Bats Primates - Monkey's, Apes and Humans

each class is divided into a distinct group of orders (class of mammalia-11 give 5))

Atelidae-Howler Monkeys, Hominiade-Apes and Humans

each order is divided into families(primate into 13 distinct families -2)

Humans belong in the genus homo

Family is then divided up into Genera (debate on number of hominidae family who belongs herE?)

1.8 million species each organism is its own species

Number of species

Genus Homo

modern humans are the only species within this group


What did we evolve from over 200,000 years ago


the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments


all organisms that interact with other organisms in their environment and also organisms interact with there environment

Organism-population-community-ecosystem- biome- biosphere

Organization of an Ecology


the thin volume of the earth that supports life


all living organisms


all of the biotic and abiotic components of a particular environment


all physical and chemical characteristics (nonliving)


all of the interacting organisms living in an area


all of the members of a species that live in a particular area


when an organism adjusts its tolerance to abiotic factors


where an organism lives


the specific role an organism occupies in its environment


is not recycled, new energy must be provided by the sun


must be recycled and used again

Biogeochemical Cycle

the cycling of key nutrients between the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem

Water Cycle

The cycling of water in an ecosystem

Carbon Cycle

the cycling of carbon in an ecosystem

Nitrogen Cycle

the cycling of nitrogen in an ecosystem

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