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49 terms

Biology

This covers chapter 1 and chapter 18 in the holt biology book for academic students.
STUDY
PLAY
Biology
the study of living things
Study of cancer
what is oncology
Study of insects
what is entomology
Study of birds
what is ornithology
Study of genes
what is genetics
study of fish
what is Ichthyology
study of reptiles
what is herpetology
1. Requirement for food and energy 2. Growth 3. Reproduction 4. Response to stimuli 5. Homeostasis 6. Organized (cells)
Characteristics of life
1.8 million different organisms on earth
What is the number of organisms currently on earth?
Taxonomy
the science of naming, classifying, and organizing all living things into groups based on similarity.
Taxonomical Hierarchy
a system for organizing and classifying organisms
Domain-Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species
What is the taxonomical hierarchy's categories?
Eukarya-Prokarya-Archea
3 domains
Prokarya
a group that consists of all modern day bacteria (salmonella, e-coli)
Archea
a group of bacteria unique from the modern bacteria
Eukarya
most diverse domain containing all organisms that are not bacteria
Animalia- Plantae-Fungi-Protista
Name the 4 kingdoms
Animalia
made of eukaryotic cells, multicellular, consumer
Plantae
made of eukaryotic cells, multicellular, producer
Photosynthesis
the process of converting solar energy into chemical energy requies pigment chlorophylll
Fungi
made of eukaryotic cells, multicellular, consumer
Protista
made of eukaryotic cells, unicellular, consumers and producers
1. Algae- plant, 2. Protozoans- animal
Protista has two subgroups
Echinodermata-starfish/sand dollars Arthropoda-insects, spiders, and crabs Mollusca- snails, octopus, and squid Chordata-humans, frogs, birds
Name 4 animal phylums
Chondrichthyes-sharks, aves-birds, reptiles- snakes and lizards amphibians-frogs and salamanders mammels- humans, elephants, and seals
Phylum Chordata 8 classes give 5
Cetacia- Whales and dolphins Carnivora-Dogs, Cats and birds Rodentia-Rats, mice, and squirrels Chiroptera - Bats Primates - Monkey's, Apes and Humans
each class is divided into a distinct group of orders (class of mammalia-11 give 5))
Atelidae-Howler Monkeys, Hominiade-Apes and Humans
each order is divided into families(primate into 13 distinct families -2)
Humans belong in the genus homo
Family is then divided up into Genera (debate on number of hominidae family who belongs herE?)
1.8 million species each organism is its own species
Number of species
Genus Homo
modern humans are the only species within this group
homoerectus
What did we evolve from over 200,000 years ago
Ecology
the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments
Interdependence
all organisms that interact with other organisms in their environment and also organisms interact with there environment
Organism-population-community-ecosystem- biome- biosphere
Organization of an Ecology
Biosphere
the thin volume of the earth that supports life
Biotic
all living organisms
Ecosystem
all of the biotic and abiotic components of a particular environment
Abiotic
all physical and chemical characteristics (nonliving)
Community
all of the interacting organisms living in an area
Population
all of the members of a species that live in a particular area
Acclimation
when an organism adjusts its tolerance to abiotic factors
Habitat
where an organism lives
Niche
the specific role an organism occupies in its environment
Energy
is not recycled, new energy must be provided by the sun
matter
must be recycled and used again
Biogeochemical Cycle
the cycling of key nutrients between the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem
Water Cycle
The cycling of water in an ecosystem
Carbon Cycle
the cycling of carbon in an ecosystem
Nitrogen Cycle
the cycling of nitrogen in an ecosystem