84 terms

Chapter 12 Everything about NEURONS

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

nervous tissue is composed of _ main types of cells.
two
what are the two main type of cells that nervous tissue is made of?
Neurons and Neuroglia
Neurons are the _______ cells
main functional cells
Neuroglia are the _______ cells
support
Neurons are considered the basic _____ and _____ units of the _____ tissue.
structural, functional, nervous
1.Neurons are very _____ cells
2.They ____ to _____.
3.They conduct _____ impulses,
4.They produce and release _____ for _____.
1.specialized
2.Respond to stimuli
3.electrochemical
4.Neurotransmitters for communication
Neurons vary in ____ and ____ but generally look like ___ ___ out ____.
Size, shape, long drawn out fibers
How many distinct areas do neurons have?
All neurons have 3 distinct areas.
What are two other names for the "Soma" of a neuron?
Perikaryan and Body
The enlarged area of a neuron that contains the nucleus and the other typical organelles is called the _____.
Cell body
What kind of fiber makes up a dendryte?
Nerve Fibers
Where is a dendryte typically located?
Usually there are many coming off of the cell body of a neuron.
What do dendrytes look like?
They are short, thick, highly branched cellular extensions.
Dendrytes _____ a stimulus and conduct the impulse ____ the cell body.
Receive, Toward
What kind of fiber is an Axon made of?
Nerve fibers
What does an axon look like?
usually a single ,very long cytoplasmic extension off of the cell body.
cytoplasm in an axon is called ____.
Axoplasm
The cell membrane off of an axon is called ____.
Axolemma
The point where the axon originates from the cell body is called the _____.
Axon Hillock
The many smaller branches at the distal end of an Axon is called the _____.
Axon terminals
The enlarged distal ends of axon terminals that release neurotransmitters are called the _____.
synaptic bulbs
How many functional classifications of neurons are there?
3
Sensory Neurons conducts impulses from ____ ___ to ____.
sensory receptors to the CNS
CNS stands for ______.
Central Nervous System
What does the central nervous system include?
brain and/or spinal cord
What conducts impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS?
Sensory neurons
Motor Neurons conduct impulses from the ___ to the ____ ____.
CNS to the effector organs
What are effector organs?
Muscles or glands
What conducts impulses from the CNS to the effector organs?
Motor Neurons
Association Neurons are located where?
entirely within the CNS
Which functional classification of a neuron is located entirely within the CNS?
Association Neurons
Association neurons are located within the CNS, but where exactly are they located?
Between the brain and spinal cord
What conducts an impulse from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron?
Association neurons
Association neurons conduct an impulse from a ____ ____ to a ____ ____.
sensory neuron to a motor neuron
List the 3 types of functional classifications.
Sensory neurons, Motor Neurons and Association Neurons
How many structural classifications are there?
3
List the three types of structural classifications.
Bipolar, Unipolar and Multipolar
Bipolar neurons have ___ nerve fibers coming off of the ___ _____.
2, cell body
Which two cellular extensions come off of a Bipolar neuron?
Axon and Dendryte
Which Structural classification of a neuron has two nerve fibers coming off of the cell body?
Bipolar neuron
Bipolar neurons will always be ____ in function
Sensory
Unipolar neurons are a ____ nerve fiber coming off of the cell body that will ____ into a _____ and ____.
single, fork off, dendryte and Axon
Which structural classification of a neuron is a single nerve fiber coming off of the cell body that will fork off into a dendryte or axon?
Unipolar Neuron
Unipolar neurons will always be ______ in function.
sensory
Which of the three structurally classified neurons are the most common?
Multipolar neurons
All motor and association neurons are _____ in structural classification.
multipolar
All ___ and ____ neurons are Multipolar.
Motor and Association
Multipolar neurons will have ___ ____ and one ____ coming off of the cell body.
Many dendrytes and one axon
Neuroglia cells are _____ cells of the nervous tissue
accessory
What is the accessory cell for nervous tissue?
Neuroglia cells
Are neuroglia cells small or large in comparison to a Neuron?
small
Do neuroglia cells greatly outnumber neurons? Or do neurons greatly outnumber neuroglia cells?
neuroglia cells greatly outnumber neurons.
neuroglia cells ____ and ____ the neurons
support and protect
how many types of neuroglia cells are there?
5 types
list the 5 types of neuroglia cells that we need to know for the test.
Shwan cells , Oligodendrocytes , Microglia, Ependymal cells, and Astrocytes
What are Shwan cells , Oligodendrocytes , Microglia, Ependymal cells, and Astrocytes?
the 5 types of neuroglia cells we need to know for the test.
Where can Schwan cells be found?
only in the PNS
What does the PNS stand for?
Peripheral Nervous system
What do Schwan cells do?
they form the myaline sheath around the nerve fibers in the PNS
Which type of neuroglia cell forms the Myaline sheath around the nerve fibers in the PNS?
Schwan cells
Where can Oligodendrocytes be found?
in the CNS
What is the function of a Oligodendrocyte?
to form the myaline sheath around the nerve fibers in the CNS.
Which type of neuroglia cell forms the myaline sheath around the nerve fibers in the CNS?
Oligodendrocytes
Where can Microglia be found?
in the CNS
What is the function of a Microglia cell?
They are small phagocytotic white blood cells that engulf foreign microbes of the CNS.
Which neuroglia cell is a small phagocytotic white blood cell that engulfs foreign microbes of the CNS?
Microglia cells
Where can Ependymal cells be found?
CNS
What is the function of an Ependymal cell?
It is a ciliated simple columnar epithelial cell that lines the ventricles of the brain andthe cntral canal of the spinal cord to assist the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Ependymal Neuroglia cells are comprised of epithelial tissue cells what is the Epithelial tissue?
Simple columnar E.T.
What does an Ependymal Neuroglia cell line in terms of covering a surface area?
the brain and central canal of the spinal cord.
Why do Ependymal Neuroglia cells line the brain and central canal of the spinal cord?
to assist the circulation of cerebrospinalfluid.
Where can astrocytes be found?
the CNS
what shapes do astrocytes resemble?
a star
what is the function of an astrocyte?
they surround brain capillaries to form the blood brain barrier and it protects your brain and spinal cord against bacteria.
What do astrocytes protect your brain and spinal cord against?
bacteria
what do astroctes protect?
your brain and spinal cord
what do astrocytes surround?
brain capillaries to form the blood brain barrier.
The process in which cells wrap around a nerve fiber to form a myalin sheath that protects and insulates a neuron and increases the speed of an impulse is called _____
Myelination
Myalination is the process in which cells wrap around a ____ ___to form a _____ ____ that protects and insulates a neuron and increases the ____ of an _____.
nerve fiber,myalin sheath,speed, impulse
What is a multilayer of white phospholipid material that covers a nerve fiber for protection, insulation and to increase the speed of the electrochemical current.
Myalin sheath
The myalin sheath is a multilayer of ____ ____ material that covers a nerve fiber for ____ ____ and to increase the ____ of the ________ _______.
white phospholipid, protection,insulation, speed of the electrochemical current.
The myalin sheath covers a nerve fiber, but what is the reason in doing so?
protection, insulation and to increase the speed of the electrochemical current
The point or gaps between the Shwann cells not covered by a myelin sheath are called the ____ ____ _____.
Nodes of Raveir
The Nodes of Raveir are the point or gaps between the ____ cells not covered by ___ ____.
Schwan cells, myalin sheath