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Mapping a Changing World Quiz 2
Terms in this set (60)
dividing of property into parcels
Which are areas with some implication for landownership or land use.
Metes and Bounds
These refer to land descriptions that may consist of landmarks and approximate directions or precise distance and direction readings.
Maps drawn to scale showing the lots into which the area has ben divided.
US Public Land Survey System
Or the township/range system. Rows of townships and columns of ranges.
Show properties and lot numbers that are tired to fiscal and legal cadastre.
Land Information System
Geographic information database which integrate the various cadastres into a useful whole. Has powerful analytical and graphic tools to help users analyze data, generate and manage land records, produce maps and make better land management decisions.
Vertical difference on the earth's surfaces. Terrain features like hills and plains, mountains and valleys.
Lines of equal elevation above a datum.
Relief shading / hillshading
Patterns the height and angle of the sun to simulate shadows on the ground.
Uses continuous color changes to represent elevation changes.
S-Saturation: darkness in color
V-Value or lightness: lightness in color
A base measurement point (or set of points) from which all elevations are determined
A map with a theme. Emphasizes a single theme or a few related themes.
names, types, classes, non-numerical data.
Small multiples are a good way to show qualitative data.
Point, line, area feature types
Cartographers use these graphic marks on the map to represent geographic features.
The things that you can change on a map that communicate the purpose/theme of the map.
Shape, orientation, color(hue), size, value/contrast
A shape can be repeated along a line or across an area to create a pattern- we sometimes call this line or area pattern.
Can be used to create patterns within the graphic marks, which is called pattern orientation.
What we think of as the "color" of a symbol. Like color coding symbols.
Choosing symbols, colors, textures, and other graphic variables to represent spatial information
Single theme vs.multivariate
Single theme: The simplest and most common qualitative thematic maps are those that emphasize a single theme.
Multivariate map: Show more than one variable
Maps collected in a series to show change over time or space.
Visual Variables for quantitative data
Size, pattern/texture, color/lightness, color/saturation
MAUP (Modifiable Areal Unit
The areal units used in many geographical studies are arbitrary, modifiable, and subject to the whims and fancies of whoever is doing, or did the aggregating
a map that uses differences in shading, coloring, or the placing of symbols within predefined areas to indicate the average values of a property or quantity in those areas.
A science of acquiring, processing, and interpreting. Images and related data that are obtained from ground-based, air or space-borne instruments that record the interactive between matter (target) and electromagnetic radiation. How to collect data from far away. Ground based, airplanes, satellites.
A photo that has been corrected so that the scale is uniform and distortion is removed.
The process of adjusting the geometry of photos to correct issues of camera tilt and positional locations within the photo.
GOES. Satellites that send weather patterns and remain in the same space. They composite the images and takes multiple images and lay them on top of each other to produce a single image because not one satellite can get all images/data.
When satellites take multiple images and combines them to produce a single image.
Uses multispectral imaging so collect insights into the nature of our surroundings.
Provides satellite imagery at aerial photography resolution.
Geostationary Operational environmental satellite. Take and send weather images. They composite the images and takes multiple images and lay them on top of each other to produce a single image because not one satellite can get all images/data.
Commercial satellites from Europe with multispectral imaging.
Accuracy of coordinate values.
The accuracy of something on the map to real life.
changing a map to remove information, often done by changing geometry of data.
Don't know to what extent the error is wrong.
The difference between reality and the map data. We are aware of the errors
The agreement of relationships between variables. i.e: $tarbuck$ vs Starbucks.
Data about "data". Includes dates of creation, ownership, quality of data, etc...
Sources of Error
Temporal accuracy, attribute accuracy, instrument malfunction
Which visual variables work better for qualitative data, and which work better for quantitative data?
Certain visual variables work well for qualitative data because they do not communicate a magnitude message; others work well for quantitative data because they do.
The Township and Range system is also known as the ____?
US Public Land Survey System
Which two relief methods are at use in the map at right?
Contour lines, hypsometric tint
When classing quantitative data in maps, what is the difference between the Natural Breaks method and the Equal Range Interval method?
Natural breaks method classes data based on critical breaks within the distribution. Equal interval, each class has the same range of values
Explain the difference between Uncertainty and Error.
What process creates an orthophoto by locating points on the photo to the ground and correcting geometry in the photo?
How might the process of Generalization introduce errors into a map?
Generalization: Changing a map to remove information, often done by changing geometry.
Changing of one scale to another scale. Might simplify the data. Lose detailed information on the map.
Instead of having an outline for an airport, you just have a symbol of an airplane.
In my dataset, I have some Starbucks labeled as a café, and some labeled as a restaurant. What kind of error am I making? (May be more than one type)
Logical consistency, attribute accuracy
Recommended textbook explanations
Earth and Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology
Pearson Earth Science
Edward J. Tarbuck
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