Psychology Exam One (PART 1)

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Terms in this set (60)
variablerefers to the object, concept or event being measurementreliabilitymeasure that provides consistent and stable answers across multiple observations and points in timevaliditydegree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures what it claims to measuregeneralizabilityrefers to the degree in which one set of results can be applied to other situations, individuals or eventsHawthorne effectdescribes situation in which behavior changes as a result of being observedplacebo effectmeasurable and experienced improvement in health or behavior that cannot be attributable to medicationnaturalistic obersationunobtrusively observing and recording behavior as it occurs in the subject's natural environmentCorrelational researchrepresented on a SCATTERPLOT, takes DIRECTION (positive and negative) and has MAGNITUDE (correlation coefficient)confounding variablewhen groups are not randomly assigned, variables outside the researchers control might effect the resultsQuasi-Experimental researchtechnique where two or more groups that are compared are selected based on predetermined characteristics (ex. when comparing race or gender)Dependentobersation that is being recorded during experiment, looking to measure (ex. health)Independentvariable that is being manipulated (ex. exercise)Experimentalgroup that always receives the treatment and being exposed to independent variable (ex. people who are exercising)Controlgroup does not receive the treatment (ex. people who continue in normal life)descriptive statisticsset of techniques used to organize, summarize and interpret dataFrequencynumber of obserations that fall within a certain category or range (bar graph, histogram)Central Tendencymeasure of central point in distribution (ex. mean, median and mode)neuronsone of the major types of cells found in the nervous system that are responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the bodysensory neuronsfetch information and bring information TOWARD the brainmotor neuronscarry messages AWAY from the brain and toward musclesNeurotransmitterschemicals that function as messengers allowing neurons to communication with each othercell body"soma" part of the neuron that contains nucleus that houses the cell's genetic materialdendritessmall branches that receives messages from other cells and transmits message toward the cell bodyaxonstructure that transports information from one neuron to anothersynapsessmall spaces that separate each nerve cellDopaminemood, control of movements and rewarding experiencesserotoninregulating mood, appetite and sleepnorepinephrineregulating stress by increasing arousal, attention and heart rateacetylcholineone of the most widespread neurotransmitters, found in between nerve cells and skeletal musclesGlutamateexcitatory, critical to learning and memoryAgonistsdrugs that enhance effects of neurotransmittersAntagonistsblock neurotransmittersSubstance Pneurotransmitter involve in experience of painCentral nervous systemconsists of brain and spinal cordPeripheral Nervous Systemtransmits signals between the brain and rest of body; consists of somatic and autonomic systemSomatic Nervous systemreceives sensory input from body and control skeletal muscles which are responsible for voluntary and reflexive movementAutonomic Nervous Systemresponsible for controlling organs and gland; Sympathetic (fight or flight) and Parasympathetic (returning body to normal state)Right HemisphereCREATIVE; cognitive tasks, visual and spatial skills, musical processingLeft HemisphereLOGICAL; tends to be more analytical, specialized in language and mathNeuroplasticitycapacity of brain to change and rewire itself based on individual experience (ex. musical training)sensationprocess of detecting external events (sounds, colors, tastes) and turning them into neural signalsPerceptioninvolves attending, organizing and interpreting stimuli that we sense (recognizing sounds and understanding colors, shapes, etc)transductionprocess in which physical or chemical stimulation is converted into nerve impulse that is relayed to the brainsensory adaptionreduction in activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to stimuli (drug addicts and tolerance)signal detection theorystates that whether a stimulus is perceived depends on both sensory and decisionGestalt's principles of perceptionemphasizes the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts", individual parts may have own little meaning, but when put together it takes on a different, perceived form5 Principles of perception1.) figure/ground 2.) proximity 3.) similarity 4.) continuity 5.) closuretop-down processingoccurs when prior knowledge and expectations guide what is perceived (something is in your mind and you know what you are looking for)Bottom-up processingconstructing a whole stimulus or concept from bits of raw information (when coming across something unfamiliar and difficult to recognize)inattentional blindnessfailure to notice clearly visible events or objects because attention is directed elsewhere (ex. running stop sign)