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CH 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Terms in this set (50)
A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water, is termed___?
a falling blood pH and rising partial pressure of CO2 due to pneumonia or emphysema produces ___?
A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
Acidosis occurs when arterial blood pH is below ___?
Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
Her blood volume will transiently increase
Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
In females, ___ seems to decrease sodium reabsorption, thus leading to sodium and water loss by the kidney.
Molecule that can act reversibly as acids or bases depending upon the pH of their environment are called ___?
Newborn infants have a relatively higher ___ content in their ECF than do adults.
Parathyroid hormone regulates the level of ___ ions in the body.
Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their___?
Respiratory acidosis can occur when ___?
Breathing is shallow due to an obstruction
The breakdown of phosphorous-containing proteins releases ___ acid?
The corpus luteum in the female ovary produces progesterone, a hormone that blocks the mineralocorticoid receptor and therefore has anti___-like effects in the kidney/
The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ___?
The maintenance of the proper pH of body fluids may be the result of ___?
Respiratory ventilation controls
The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ___?
Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ___?
Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
The regulation of potassium balance ___?
Involves aldosterone-induced secretion of K+
The regulation of sodium ___?
Is linked to blood pressure
The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ___?
Potassium ion concentration in the blood plasma
The term ALKALINE RESERVE is used to describe the ___ buffer system.
The water volume of the body is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
Total body water is NOT a function of which of the following?
Amount of water ingested
What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ___ is found in the intracellular fluid.
Which of the following are signs and symptoms of alkalosis?
Agitation, nervousness, muscle tetany
Which of the following are the signs and symptoms of acidosis?
Panting, followed by severe nervous system depression
Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
K+ mainly inside, Na+ mainly outside cells
Which of the following does NOT depend on the presence of electrolytes?
Amount of body fat
Which of the following exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
Which of the following hormones is most important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
Which of the following is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins that results in edema?
Which of the following is a potential cause of ascites?
Which of the following is an ATYPICAL accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space?
Which of the following is caused by asthma, pneumonia, or a severe panic attack?
Which of the following is caused by severe diarrhea or untreated diabetes mellitus?
Which of the following is caused by vomiting, use of diuretics, or overuse of antacids?
Which of the following is disorder affecting the adrenal cortex in which there is insufficient mineralocorticoid production?
Which of the following is NOT a buffer system?
Which of the following is NOT a disorder of water balance?
Excessive hydration due to excess ANP secretion
Which of the following is NOT a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood?
Which of the following in NOT a trigger for juxtaglomerular granular cells to release renin?
Increased ECF water levels
Which of the following is NOT an essential role of salts in the body?
Anabolism of lipids
Which of the following occurs with emphysema, extreme obesity, or narcotic overdose?
Which of the following provides the most rapid short-term mechanism for preventing acid-base imbalances in the body?
Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
Which of the following tissue types contains the most water (is the most hydrated)?
___ have/has the greatest ability to cause fluids to shift between compartments in the body.
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