68 terms

Chemistry Vocabulary Words

From the textbook Physical Science, (Glencoe Science made) Chapters 15-21 excluding 18. For finals.
A type of matter with a fixed composition.
If all the atoms in a substance has the same identity it becomes {blank}.
A substance in which the atoms of 2 or more elements are combined.
Heterogeneous Mixture
Mixture in which different materials can easily be distinguished.
Homogeneous Mixture
Contains 2 or more gases, liquids, or solids substances blended evenly.
Homogeneous mixture with particles so small that they cannot be seen with a microscope.
Type of mixture with particles that are larger than those in solutions, but not heavy enough to settle out.
Tyndall Effect
Scattering of light by colloidal particles.
Heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid where visible particles settle.
Physical Property
Characteristic of a material you can observe without changing the identity.
Physical Change
A change in size, shape, or state.
A process for separating substances by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vapor.
Chemical Property
Characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a chemical change.
Chemical Change
A change of one substance to another.
Law of Conservation and Mass
The mass of all substances that are present before a chemical change equals the mass of all the substances after the change.
Kinetic Theory
Explanation of how particles in matter behave.
Melting Point
The point in temperature when the solid starts to liquefy.
Heat of Fusion
The energy required to change a substance from a solid to a liquid at its melting point.
Boiling Point
The point in temperature when the liquid starts to boil.
Heat of Vaporization
Amount of energy required for a liquid to become a gas.
Spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are distributed.
Ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.
Force exerted per area. (Formula)
The resistance to flow by a fluid.
Used to measure pressure.
Element composed of one type, the {blank}.
The center of a atom.
Particles in a atom with a positive charge.
Particles in a atom with no charge.
Particles in a atom with a negative charge.
Smaller particles in neutrons and protons.
Electron Cloud
Area around a nucleus where electrons are mostly found.
Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom is equal to a number called {blank}.
Mass Number
This number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Average Atomic Mass
Is the weighted average mass of its isotopes.
Periodic Table
A table filled with elements in order of atomic numbers, etc.
The vertical columns in the periodic table.
Electron Dot Diagram
Uses the symbol of the element and dots to represent electrons.
Horizontal rows of elements.
Good conductors of heat and electricity.
Can be hammered.
Metallic Bonding
Positively charged metallic ions surrounded by a electron cloud.
Transitional Elements
Between groups 1 and 2, and 13 and 18.
Usually gasses or brittle solids at room temperature.
Diatomic Molecule
Consists of 2 atoms of the same element in a covalent compound.
The process of a solid going directly into a vapor.
Has properties of both nonmetals and metals.
Different forms of the same element
Elements that conduct under circumstances.
Chemical Formula
A formula that shows what elements are in a compound and what it will become.
Chemical Bond
Force that holds atoms together in a compound.
Ionic Bond
Force of attraction between opposite charges.
Covalent Bond
Attraction formed when elements share electrons.
A neutral molecule that forms as a result of electron sharing.
Binary Compound
Composed of two elements.
Oxidation Number
Tells you how many electrons an atom has gained or lost.
Polyatomic Ion
Positively or negatively charged, covalently bonded group.
Chemical Reaction
More than one substances turning into other substances.
Substances that react.
Substances that are made.
Numbers in front of each substance in a equation.
Combustion Reaction
Substance reacts with oxygen to make heat and light.
Synthesis Reaction
2 or more substances that combine to make another.
Decomposition Reaction
One substance breaks down, into 2 more.
Single Displacement Reaction
One element replaces another to make a product.
Double Displacement Reaction
Two elements replace another to make a product.