68 terms

Chemistry Vocabulary Words

From the textbook Physical Science, (Glencoe Science made) Chapters 15-21 excluding 18. For finals.
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Substance
A type of matter with a fixed composition.
Element
If all the atoms in a substance has the same identity it becomes {blank}.
Compound
A substance in which the atoms of 2 or more elements are combined.
Heterogeneous Mixture
Mixture in which different materials can easily be distinguished.
Homogeneous Mixture
Contains 2 or more gases, liquids, or solids substances blended evenly.
Solution
Homogeneous mixture with particles so small that they cannot be seen with a microscope.
Colloid
Type of mixture with particles that are larger than those in solutions, but not heavy enough to settle out.
Tyndall Effect
Scattering of light by colloidal particles.
Suspension
Heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid where visible particles settle.
Physical Property
Characteristic of a material you can observe without changing the identity.
Physical Change
A change in size, shape, or state.
Distillation
A process for separating substances by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vapor.
Chemical Property
Characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a chemical change.
Chemical Change
A change of one substance to another.
Law of Conservation and Mass
The mass of all substances that are present before a chemical change equals the mass of all the substances after the change.
Kinetic Theory
Explanation of how particles in matter behave.
Melting Point
The point in temperature when the solid starts to liquefy.
Heat of Fusion
The energy required to change a substance from a solid to a liquid at its melting point.
Boiling Point
The point in temperature when the liquid starts to boil.
Heat of Vaporization
Amount of energy required for a liquid to become a gas.
Diffusion
Spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are distributed.
Buoyancy
Ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.
Pressure
Force exerted per area. (Formula)
Viscosity
The resistance to flow by a fluid.
Pascal
Used to measure pressure.
Atom
Element composed of one type, the {blank}.
Nucleus
The center of a atom.
Protons
Particles in a atom with a positive charge.
Neutrons
Particles in a atom with no charge.
Electrons
Particles in a atom with a negative charge.
Quarks
Smaller particles in neutrons and protons.
Electron Cloud
Area around a nucleus where electrons are mostly found.
Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom is equal to a number called {blank}.
Mass Number
This number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Average Atomic Mass
Is the weighted average mass of its isotopes.
Periodic Table
A table filled with elements in order of atomic numbers, etc.
Groups
The vertical columns in the periodic table.
Electron Dot Diagram
Uses the symbol of the element and dots to represent electrons.
Periods
Horizontal rows of elements.
Metals
Good conductors of heat and electricity.
Malleable
Can be hammered.
Ductile
Flexible.
Metallic Bonding
Positively charged metallic ions surrounded by a electron cloud.
Transitional Elements
Between groups 1 and 2, and 13 and 18.
Nonmetals
Usually gasses or brittle solids at room temperature.
Diatomic Molecule
Consists of 2 atoms of the same element in a covalent compound.
Sublimation
The process of a solid going directly into a vapor.
Metalloids
Has properties of both nonmetals and metals.
Allotropes
Different forms of the same element
Semiconductors
Elements that conduct under circumstances.
Chemical Formula
A formula that shows what elements are in a compound and what it will become.
Chemical Bond
Force that holds atoms together in a compound.
Ionic Bond
Force of attraction between opposite charges.
Covalent Bond
Attraction formed when elements share electrons.
Molecule
A neutral molecule that forms as a result of electron sharing.
Binary Compound
Composed of two elements.
Oxidation Number
Tells you how many electrons an atom has gained or lost.
Polyatomic Ion
Positively or negatively charged, covalently bonded group.
Chemical Reaction
More than one substances turning into other substances.
Reactants
Substances that react.
Products
Substances that are made.
Coeffecients
Numbers in front of each substance in a equation.
Combustion Reaction
Substance reacts with oxygen to make heat and light.
Synthesis Reaction
2 or more substances that combine to make another.
Decomposition Reaction
One substance breaks down, into 2 more.
Single Displacement Reaction
One element replaces another to make a product.
Double Displacement Reaction
Two elements replace another to make a product.