AP World History
Terms in this set (833)
The early period of human history in which people used simple stone tools. Old Stone Age
Hunting and gathering
Ended 12,000 BCE
New Stone Age; which went from about 8000 B.C to 3000 B.C. People who lived during this learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals.
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
the biological species to which modern human beings belong
This social revolution was also known as the New Stone Age where people changed from hunting and gathering food to domesticating animals, cultivating land, and farming
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
Hunting and Gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Slash and Burn Agriculture
Another name for cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
A level of social organization normally consisting of 20 to 30 people; nomadic hunters and gatherers; labor divided on a gender basis.
In southern Turkey; founded in 7,000 BCE; coverd 32 acres; houses were made of mud bricks on timber wood; crowded together w/ few windows; religious images both of powerful male hunters; mother goddesses devoted to agricultural fertility; large villages ruled over smaller communities leaving families to specialize in politics; by 3,000 BCE became part of a civilization
A society that has a high level of culture and social organization including organized government, job specialization, and an organized belief system.
a system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.
cattle- and sheep-herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as "barbarian" by civilized societies.
Moved from place to place.
first civilization located between the Tigris and Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers"; Sumerian culture
the earliest known civlization; were the first to have a language and are responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
huge towers built by the Sumerians that were the used to worship and were center of village life and economy
a city and its surrounding farmlands, with its own leaders and government, culture, and language
an ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley. It flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II but declined after 562 B.C. and fell to the Persians in 539.
Ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases.
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader
built for beauty and to be used as cemetery--thought to be a Pharaoh's new home in the afterlife
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
river that sources in the Himalayas and flows to its mouth in the Arabian Sea; location of the early civilizations Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
major urban complexes of Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern.
Yellow River; located in China; civilizations that developed along the river were in considerable isolation; subject of many Chinese legends
Pictographic characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writing.
Sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast
Belief in a single God.
Introduced by the Jews
It is a philosophy which is founded by Laozi; emphasizes living in harmony with nature
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of this culture.
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History
Promoted the use of Mandarin; extended territory to Yangzi River
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created a Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects.
unified China, ruled Qin dynasty,built many roads, started Great Wall of China, divided kingdoms into districts.
imperial dynasty that ruled China from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy.
Characterized by stability, prosperity, and peace.
connected China, India, and the Middle East. Traded goods and helped to spread culture, ideas, and disease
The Great Wall
Built to protect China from northern invaders; extends 3000 miles; built using forced labor
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances.
Kung Fuzi; 551-478 BCE
world's highest mountains, southwest part of china
a seasonal wind in southern Asia; summer brings heavy rains
A group of Indo-European nomadic herders who are believed by many scholars to have migrated to the Indian subcontinent.
the ancient language of India brought by the Aryans
Early Indian; "sacred knowledge";long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down.
one of the two Sanskrit epics of Ancient India. It is the longest epic poem in the world. It is translated as "Great India"; is primarily about wars
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
clusters of caste groups; four social castes: brahmans (priests), warriors, merchants, peasants; beneath them were the untouchables.
the lowest group of people in the caste system; they were deemed the most impure because of their work: butchers, gravediggers, collecters of trash; it was believed that even their touch endangered the ritual purity of others
chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior God of thunder and strength
Written by Vatsayana during Gupta dynasty offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher caste males, including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and instruction on lovemaking
The blending traits from two different cultures to form a new trait.
in Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment
in Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
A Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
Originally referred to as Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas
Political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra; believed in scientific application of warfare.
dynasty that succeeded the Mauryans in northwestern India; sponsors of buddhism empire did not extend into the Ganges river valley
Artificially deformed skulls
dynasty the succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century CE; built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized than Mauryan Empire; claimed divine rule; demanding system of taxation; established universities
in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society
dynasty in India in 4th century BCE after invasion of Alexander the Great
Ruled by Chandragupta Maurya
founder of Maurya dynasty; established first empire in Indian subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.
Stone shrines built to house pieces of bone and personal possessions said to be relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms.
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming enlightened, he enunciated the principles of Buddhism.
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
The Ruler who divided Rome into two sections. He fixed prices to avoid inflation, and forces farmers to remain on their land in order to ensure the production of food and goods.
Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator or, more commonly, 27 BC the year that the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title Augustus.
that culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
336 BC, was an ancient Greek king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great.
Wars from 431 to 404 BCE between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece; resulted in Spartan victory but failure to achieve political unification of Greece
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
one of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness would triumph in the end
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemy. It contained the famous Library and the Museum and was a center for leading scientific and literary figures in the classical and postclassical eras.
Cyrus the Great
Established massive Persian Empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to Mesopotamian empires., c. 530 B.C.E. A Persian ruler who captured Babylon. He was known for his mercy. He was tolerant of other religions and culture, and even incorporated different architectural styles into his buildings.
a plain, sturdy column with a plain capital
a taller, thinner column with scroll shapes on its capital
the most slender and ornate of the three Greek columns. Known for its decorative capital of delicately carved leaves.
Known as an Epic (long poem), info on the Trojan War
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex
Greek philosopher; socratic method--questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth
Teacher to Plato
Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled
Wrote The Republic
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
Rome's greatest public speaker; he argued against dictators and called for a representative government with limited powers
Two chief executives or magistrates of the Roman republic; elected by an annual assembly dominated by aristocracy
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Greek word for city-state
kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
a Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa
a huge desert stretching across most of North Africa
religion of the early Japanese culture; worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world (polytheistic, animistic); offered food and prayers to gods and nature spirits
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.(which didn't end on Dec.21st, 2012)
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. They ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100 B.C.-750 A.D.). Its population was 150,000 in its peak in 600 CE; largest city in the Americas; remembered for giant Pyramid of the Sun
the belief that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural objects
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and and Easter Island.
Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 C.E., promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic.
dynasty succeeding the Han; grew from strong rulers in northern China; reunited China.
Li Yuan founded this dynasty. During this dynasty, Buddhists gained power, so the government put and end to Buddhism and brought back Confucianism
Regional princes in India following collapse of empire; emphasized military control of their regions
The mother goddess of Hinduism. The worship of this deity encouraged new emotionalism in the religion.
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Literally meaning "submission"
Muslim name for the one and only God
Historians name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, an early name for Constantinople, the capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
influential church father and theologian; Bishop of Hippo; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination
The Christian church of Egypt, with dioceses elsewhere in Africa and the Near East. This is a branch within Orthodox Christianity, tolerated an Islamic takeover.
future Buddhas. As the ideal types for Mahayana Buddhism; being who have experienced enlightenment but, motivated by compassion, stop short of entering nirvana so as to help others achieve it.
Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior
Jesus of Nazareth
a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for christianity
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian.
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order about 540 (480-547)
Founder of Monasticism
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
leaders of tribes and clans within Bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives and many children
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
tribe of Bedouins that controlled Mecca in 7th century CE
Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam
("cube") a pre-islamic cubed building in mecca believed by muslims to have been built by Abraham. It is the center of the Muslim Pilgrimage
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam
First wife of the prophet Muhammad, who had worked for her as a trader.
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law; a leading figure in the Shi'a branch of Islam
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
First caliph of Islam after the death of Muhammad
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
holy wars launched to forcibly spread the Muslim faith
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
Believe that there are 2 distinct nature's of Christ: One Human, one divine
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party
Leader of the Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi'a resistance to Umayyad caliphate
Syrian city that was capital of Umayyad caliphate
Non-Arab converts to Islam.
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists
"traditions" of the prophet Muhammad; added to the Qur'an, form the essential writings of Islam.
Battle of the River Zab
750; Abbasid victory over the Umayyads, near the Tigris. Led to Abbasid ascendancy.
capital of the Abbasid Empire
chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession
Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad and acted as sultans through Abbasid figureheads
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin; took back Jerusalem
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests
Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama
Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.
ruler of Ilkhan Khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. They eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
Muhammad ibn Qusim
Arab general at 17; Conquered Sind region in India; Declared the region and the Indus Valley to be part of the Umayyad Empire
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
Muhammad of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
Lieutenant of Mahmud of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delhi; proclaimed himself Sultan of India
Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Vishnu and Shiva
Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca.
most powerful of the trading states on the north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point of dissemination to other ports
scientific study of human populations
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
the Arabic term for Eastern North Africa
the Arabic word for western North Africa
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
A reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Sahara Africa.
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout Mali empire; eventually spread throughout much of West Africa
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
The Lion Prince
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
Muhammad the Great
Extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century
Peoples of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions.
body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
Arabic term for the east African coast
Nigerian city-state formed by the Edo people during the 14th century; famous for its bronze art work.
Important commercial and political entity until 19th century.
kingdom based on agriculture; formed on lower Kongo River; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy
new church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian
one of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of Western Europe; commended in North Africa and Italy
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014
King took title of "tsar"
Cyril and Methodius
Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and the Balkans; responsible for creating the Slavic written script called Cyrillic.
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century.
Legendary Scandinavian regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity
Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments
golden age; issued written law code, translated Greek to his own language; arranged marriages
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Mongols who captured Russian cities and destroyed the Kievan state in 1236. However, they left the Russian Orthodox church and aristocracy intact.
One of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts from the eighth through the tenth century.
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215, This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
bodies representing groups- such as nobles and churches- House of Lords. Right to rule on power or taxation- give opinion or voice in changes. institutionalized feudal priciple that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France
The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
Based in Northern France, Belgium, and Western Germany.
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
"Charles the Hammer"
King of the Franks from 768 to 814 and emporer of rome from 800 to 814. Ruled over 40 years. Most important leader of the Franks because he unified nearly all Christian lands of Europe into a single empire.
"Charles the Great"
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.
Hundred Years War
conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free Church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture.
practice of state appointment of bishops
Author of Yes And No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
Bernard of Clairvaux
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of several Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God
medieval way of thinking that tried to bring together reason and faith in studies of religion
relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches and tall spires.
An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards
Name given to the New World natives by Columbus (He thought he had reached the E. Indies.He's an idiot. I digress )
Succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.
Religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in 10th century.
Attempted to move Toltec religion towards Qutzlcoatl because of the human sacrifice
Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
one of the major Aztec gods associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle as the god of rain
A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the inca or the Inca nobility.
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god
King of Texcoco. Wrote hymns to the "lord of the close vicinity" (an invisible creative force that supported the gods) that survived in oral form until being written down in the 16th century. His poetry wondered about life after death and the existence of the gods. Believed in a monotheistic concept.
local Incan rulers who got privelages in turn for their loyalty
Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs
Special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items
Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
The Incas were also known as this
Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy.
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the inca to keep financial records
A view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty
Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618
Also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu.
Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.
Ministry of Rites
Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office
Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses of Chinese society; aka Mahayana Buddhism
Stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty, popular with members of elite chinese society
Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhism establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state of religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology
Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755 though he encouraged overexpansion
Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt
Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent.
Founded in 907 by Nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; mantained independence from Song dynasty in China.
nomadic peoples of Manchuria, militarily superior to Song but influenced by Chinese culture, forced humiliating treaties on Song in 11th century
(1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
Rulers of the Xi Xia kingdom of northwest china; one of the regional kingdoms during the period of Southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226.
Kingdom of the Tangut people, north of Song Kingdom, in the mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened chinese peasantry.
Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society.
Founders of Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south.
Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by the Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing the Liao dynasty; ended in 1234.
Rump state of the Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of the much larger domains of the Tang and northern Song; Culturally, one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history.
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Tale of Genji
Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies
Professional warriors who served japanese feudal lords
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with the Minamota family; defeated after the Gempei Wars.
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira.
Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai
military leaders of the Bakufu
A warrior family closely allied with the Minamoto; dominated the Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; ruled in name of emperor.
Member of the Minamota family; overthrew the Kamakuro regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336-1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of the Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded ministates
earliest Korean Kingdom; conquered by Han emperor in 109 BCE
tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century.
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772; rivals of Nguyen family in South.
Meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected
Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100 and 10.
Capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan, 1162 - 1227.
ruler of the golden horde; one of Chinggis Khan's grandsons; responsible for the invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as khagan of the Mongols following his father's death
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam.
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Battle of Kulikova
Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia.
In legends popular from the 12th to 17th centuries, he was a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom was cut off from Europe by Muslim conquests; Chinggis Khan was originally believed to be this ruler.
(1223-1277) Commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut in 1260; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.
A ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu and the growing power of the Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol advances into the Middle East.
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China
Mongol capital of Yuan dynasty; present-day Beijing.
The Romance of the West Chamber
Chinese dramatic work written during the Yuan period; indicative of the continued literary vitality of China during Mongol rule.
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule
Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded Ming dynasty
Last major nomad leader; 14th-century Turkic ruler of Samarkand; launched attacks in Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405.
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture.
A cultural and political movement.
One of the major literary figures of the Western Renaissance; an Italian author and humanist
Castile and Aragon
Two Spanish Christian kingdoms that gained momentum in the Late Middle Ages. Both were in conflict with the Muslim Kingdom of Granada.
Two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a Western route to the "Indies"; disappeared in 1291; precursors of thrust into southern Atlantic
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
Created by Europeans during the late 16th century; based on control of the seas; established an international exchange of foods and manufactured products.
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
Italian navigator who "discovered" the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Committed genocide of Native population
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Naval battle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire resulting in Spanish victory in 1571; demonstrated European naval superiority over Muslims.
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years' War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
a person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)
Vasco de Balboa
First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608; fell to the British in 1763.
Seven Years War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions., Austria vs Prussia; Austria abandoned old ally Britain for France and Russia; Prussia joined with British (WINNERS); significance: no territorial changes in Europe, Britain gained complete control over the overseas colonies of France; Russia and Prussia emerged as powerful forces in European affairs
Treaty of Paris
this ended the long conflict between Britain & France and ended French power in North America (1763)
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to provide a coastal station for Dutch ships traveling to and from the East Indies; settlers expanded and fought with Bantu and other Africans.
Dutch and other European settlers in Cape Colony before 19th-century British occupation; later called Afrikaners.
Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; influenced by earlier Italian Renaissance; centered in France, the Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than in Italy
King of France; a Renaissance monarch; patron of the arts; imposed new controls on the Catholic church; ally of the Ottoman sultan against the Holy Roman emperor.
1400-1468. German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable printing type in Europe abround 1439. Created the 42-line Gutenberg Bible, noted for its high aesthetic and technical quality. His printing technology was a key factor in the European Renaissance, and is considered one of the most important inventions of all time.
Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a minority who never married.
German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief.
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.
Thirty Years War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas.
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
Polish monk and astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center
Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.
Philosopher who established the importance of the skeptical review of all received wisdom; argued that human wisdom could develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
"I think, therefore I am"
Sir Isaac Newton
1643-1727. English physicist, mathmetician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Published work in 1687 describing universal gravitation, and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics.
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."
The Russian ruler who who started calling himself czar. He made the final break from the Mongols in 1480 and started a long line of rulers.
During good Era: made many reforms, Created a council that included members from all classes, Defeated Mongols and expanded borders. During bad Era: Paranoid and strict policies lost many of his followers. Killed his only heir and launched Russia into a Time of Troubles.
peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements.
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
(Russia) Successor to Michael, 2nd Monarch, abolished assemblies of monarchs, strengthened ties to Orthodox Church
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
During 1770's in reign of Catherine the Great; led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter
Partition of Poland
division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Isabella of Castile
Monarchs of Christian kingdoms; their marriage created the future Spain; initiated exploration of the New World.
Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.
a Caribbean island settled by Spaniards in 1493; a present day island that is divided into the Dominican Republic and Haiti.
The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. The encomendero was responsible for their integration into the church.
Bartolome de las Casas
Spanish missionary (priest) who was an "upstander" for the Tainos. Published several books on the mistreatment of the Indians.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
(1466-1520) Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520; he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortés and his army conquered the empire. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Francisco de Coronado
leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold.
Pedro de Valdivia
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
Produced 80% of all Peruvian silver
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions.
Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies
group of royal officials established in 1524 that oversaw the government and enforced laws in Spanish America.
Two major divisions of Spanish colonies in New World; one based in Lima; the other in Mexico City; direct representities of the King of Spain
Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of the New World; there were 10 in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates.
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
1651-1695; one of seventeeth century Latin America's best-known literary figures; wrote poetry and prose, urged women to be educated
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
Backswoodsmen from São Paulo, Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century.
Strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony.
Region of Brazil located in mountainous interior were gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush.
Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian port; close to mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763.
Sociedad de Castas
American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Native Americans at bottom, mixed races in middle.
People living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain.
People who had Spanish or Portuguese parents but were born in Latin America.
Amigos del Pais
Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform
War of Spanish Succession
A conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.
Spanish Enlightenment Monarch who ruled from 1759-1788.
Instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire
Jose de Galvez
Spanish minister of the West Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendents for local governments
Marquis of Pombal
prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
One of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Colombia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels.
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom.
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia.
Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.
member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms.
Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro.
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto.
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
new African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane
Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government.
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti.
Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan
Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerilla resistance.
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
A Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; a minority of Muslims ruled over a majority of Hindus.
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.
Head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th century often more powerful than the sultan.
Early 14th century mystic who began a campaign to purify Islam.
Member of Safavid Dynasty.
Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear.
Sufi commander who conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed "shah" or emperor
Important battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the western advance of their Shi'a state.
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
Shi'a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali's successors.
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah's plan; example of Safavid architecture.
Nadir Khan Afshar
soldier-adventurer following the fall of the Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly after running w/books, falling, and hitting his head
son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindu and Muslims in India, but failed.
Son and successor of Shah Jahan;Great grandson of Akbar; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire's resources; died in 1707.
A beautiful tomb built by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan to honor his wife.
wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal Empire during later years of Jahangir's reign
wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal
western Indian peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in the 18th century
Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge gap between Hindus and Muslims, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feelings
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
Asian Sea Trading Network
Divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks.
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located at the southern end of the Persian Gulf; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the Western Indian Coast; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network.
Fort established ca. 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
Dutch Trading Empire
The Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.
Southern island of the Philippines; a Muslim Kindom that was able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
Robert di Nobili
Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites at first; strategy later widely adapted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed.
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty
One of the 2 port cities where Europeans were permitted to trade with China during the Ming Dynasty.
An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China
Along with Matteo Ricci, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity
Last of the Ming emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen invasion of the Forbidden City at Beijing.
(1534-1582) Japenese daimyo; first to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed last of Ashikaga shoguns; unified much of central Honshu under his command
General under Nobanga; suceeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter.
School of National Learning
New Ideology that laid emphasis on Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imports such as Confuciansim; typical of Japan in the 18th century.
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Age of Revolution
Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers became full- or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial revolution
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe.
wanted governments to be based on written constitutions & separation of powers; were against divine-right monarchies, the old aristocracy, and established churches; supported natural rights and republican governments.
In the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed.
made major discoveries that led to the improvement of public health. He found that heat killed harmful bacteria
British Conservative-extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.
Count Camillo di Cavour
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the king of Piedmont.
Otto Von Bismark
German chancellor; united Germany; made a triple alliance with Austria-Hungary & Italy; made alliance with Russia
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South
Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo.
Issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
This 20th Century scientist revolutionized the way scientists thought about space, time and matter, the most notable being his theory of relativity.
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.
Mass Leisure Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670's allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java
Indian troops who served in the British army
British political establishment in India; developed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India.
Battle in 1757 between troops of the British East India Company and an Indian army under Sir àjud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory resulted in control of northern India.
British general and statesman whose victory at Plassey in 1757 strengthened British control of India (1725-1774)
Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire
Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790's; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption. YES also the same one that surrendered at the battle of Yorktown.
Ram Mohun Roy
"Father of Modern India," he pushed for a more modern India. He wanted to stop widow suicide because he saw it as a murderous act. He also wanted child marriages and the rigid caste system, two parts of religious life, separated so that India could be modernized. He felt that if they did not, India would continue to be controlled by outsiders. He was pushed to do many of this after witnessing his sister throw herself on the funeral pyre of her husband, burning alive.
Location of battle fought in 1879 between the British and Zulu armies in South Africa; resulted in defeat of British; one of few victories of African forces over Western Europeans.
Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants.
Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century
White Racial Supremacy
Belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before World War I; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer.
British colony in south Africa; developed after Boer Trek north from cape colony; major commercial outpost of Durban
Transvaal and Orange Free State in southern Africa; established to assert independence of Boers from British colonial government in Cape Colony in 1850s; discovery of diamonds and precious metals caused British migration into the Boer areas in 1860s.
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe
A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
Captain James Cook
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777-1779 resulting in openings of islands to the West; convinced Kamehamehah to establish a unified kingdom in the islands
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed
Augustin de Iturbide
Creole general who brought colonial rule to an end in 1821 in Mexico when he declared Mexico independent from Spain. A year later he declared himself emperor of Mexico. Although his empire didn't last long, in 1823 creole elites disposed of him and established a republic in Mexico.
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Bolivar's plan to unite Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia and Columbia. They united in 1822 but broke part in 1830 because of geography(mountains separated them). He hope it would be a workable union for all Latin American states
Jose de San Martin
Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well.
Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.
son and successor of Joao VI in brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor
Andres Santa Cruz
Mestizo general who established union of independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.
Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the late nineteenth century
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon; believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather than centralized national administrations
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded "sociology."
a belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
was a Mexican general and dictator, who dominated Mexican politics for a quarter of a century. He was elected president, but didn't serve; instead he overthrew the government and established himself as a dictator. He commanded the Mexican army that stormed The Alamo during the Texas Revolution of 1835 and 1836 and killed all 187 defenders, but he was shortly afterward defeated and captured by Sam Houston's Texans.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
1846 - 1848 - President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
a liberal reform movement in 19th-century Mexico, led by Benito Juarez
Maximilian von Habsburg
Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867.
Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.
Domingo F. Sarmiento
Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
Coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.
Advisors of government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization.
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
built to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
Organization of political agitators in opposition to rule of Abdul Harmid; also called the "Young Turks"; desired to restore 1876 constitution.
Head of the coalition of Mamluk rulers in Egypt; opposed Napoleonic invasion of Egypt and suffered devastating defeat; failure destroyed Mamluk government in Egypt and revealed vulnerability of Muslim core.
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Muslim thinker at the end of the 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology; recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry.
Disciple of al-Afghani; Muslim thinker at end of 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology, recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry
Student of Muhammad Abduh; led revolt in 1882 against Turkish influence in Egyptian army; forced Khedive to call on British army for support
Nile River town that was administrative center of Egyptian authority in Sudan.
Head of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; claimed descent from prophet Muhammad; proclaimed both Egyptians and British as infidels; launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities; took Khartoum in 1883; also known as the Mahdi
In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan
Successor of Muhammad Achmed as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defeated by British General Kitchener
architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria, entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing
Eight armies of the Manchu tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in early 17th century; utilized to defeat Ming emperor and establish Qing dynasty.
Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on Chian's south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world
a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China.
Distinguished Chinese official charged with stamping out opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War
Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry
leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachers of Chinese elite
late 19th century movement in China to counter the challenge from the West; led by provincial leaders
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912
Alliance among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. Russia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
Emancipation of the Serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave the middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
Russian minister of finance from 1892-1903. wanted to modernize industry in russia. he built gov-run RR's, created high tariffs and advanced technology.
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic systems; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West
Political groups that sought the abolition of all formal government; particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
He was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1922, the first de facto leader of the Soviet Union. He was the creator of Leninism, an extension of Marxist theory.
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries' efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea
(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.
Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by the middle of the 19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Reforms introduced by the Russian interior minister Piotyr Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry.
Heir to the Austrian and Hungarian throne;was assassinated with his wife by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, during a state visit to the Bosnia capital of Sarajevo
Location where the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire was assassinated
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.
the last tsar of Russia. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Duma.
A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides; World War I battle in which the British lead a disastrous attack on the Ottomans; the number of Allied casualties weakens loyalty between Britain and Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.
in World War I, the region along the German-Russian border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers' Party-the Nazi Party-in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II.
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
David Lloyd George
Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Leopold Sedar Senghor
(1906 - 2001) One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.
Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after WWI
African-American leader who founded the NAACP and believed the African-Americans should be able to vote and be treated like US citizens.
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
World Zionist Movement
started by Herzel and aimed to find a homeland for the Jews in Palestine
Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghlul; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.
Leader of Egyptian's nationalist Ward party; their negotiations with British led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922
Jewish founder of Zionist Movement(1897) movement to rebuild homeland in Palestine
French officer and Jew who was falsely accused of spying for Germany in the late 19th century; his mistreatment spurred Herzl and other Zionists to increase their call for a Jewish homeland.
(1821 - 1891) European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
members of a movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state
Governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I; Britain occupied mandates in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922.
Sherif of Mecca from 1908 to 1917; used British promise of independence to convince Arabs to support Britain against the Turks in World War I; angered by Britain's failure to keep promise; died 1931.
Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.
"Father of the Turks" who helped to create Republic of Turkey and wanted to modernize [westernize] Turkey as well as separate religion and government
Class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt; as a class generally favored Egyptian independence.
British adviser in khedival Egypt; pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime
"Truth force," a term used by Gandhi to describe peaceful boycotts, strikes, noncooperation, and mass demonstrations to promote Indian independence.
Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who developed the practice of nonviolent disobedience that forced Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947). He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic.
Placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919
Montagu- Chelmsford Reforms
Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial number of elected Indians; passed in 1919.
Constitutional changes in British India, introduced to increase Indian participation in the legislature. They were embodied in the Indian Councils Act (1909) following discussions between John Morley, Secretary of State for India (1905-14), and Lord Minto, viceroy (1905-10).
Believed that since Hindus made up the majority of the Indian population, nationalism should be built on appeals to Hindu religiosity. Promote the restoration and revival of the ancient traditions of Hinduism. Lower wedding age, no women's education. Hindu festivals = political meeting. Confined to Bombay region. Imprisoned by British when his violent writing found. Exiled to Burma
National Congress Party
Indian Political Party established in 1885, that led the eventual push for Indian Independence from the British Crown in 1947. Currently the largest Indian Political Party.
Legue of Nations
International peace keeping body that President Wilson established; created in the Treaty of Versailles
20th Century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
Economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics
(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants. Had power 1876-1911
early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated.
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913; forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata
President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924 who had the first stable government since the revolution had started. he was assassinated in 1928 shortly after being elected to another term
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
Jose Clemente Orozco
Mexican artists working after the Mexican Revolution; famous for wall murals on public buildings that mixed images of the Indian past with Christian and communist themes
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
New Economic Policy
Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991.
Parliament of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by Communist party; served to ratify party decisions.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China.
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.
Whampoa Military Academy
Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
The Long March
Retreat of Chinese communist to escape destruction by the Chinese Nationalist Army in 1934; established Mao as head of the communist party.
The Great Depression
Extended recession in the 1930s that began with the collapse of the American Stock market and led to widespread unemployment, bank failure, and a general downturn in the economy until World War II.
An alliance between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals formed for the May 1936 French elections. It was largely successful, increasing the Communists in parliament from 10 to 72, and the Socials up to 146, making them the largest party in France.
The New Deal
The name that United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to his complex package of economic programs 1933-36 with the goals of what historians call the 3 Rs. of giving Relief to the unemployed and badly hurt farmers. Reform of business and financial practices. and promoting Recovery of the economy during the Great Depression.
a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens.
the German state secret police during the Nazi regime, organized in 1933 and notorious for its brutal methods and operations
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
a political system in which interest groups become an institutionalized part of the state or dominant political party
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry
Dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo ('New State'), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization.
Juan D. Peron
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after militiary coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became President in 1946, forced into exile in 1955, returned and won presidency in 1973
Five- Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
Attempt w/in USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adaptation of Western European cultural forms;Aesthetic docterine insisting all art be intelligible to masses and subserve the state.
National Socialist Party
Also known as the Nazi party; led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the economic chaos of the Gread Depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader; aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Versailles treaty; took power in Germany in 1933.
the chief executive and political committee of the Communist Party
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
"Lighting war", type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
the French government that collaborated with the Nazis that was established after the Invasion of France. The Vichy government, led by Philippe Petain, helped the Nazis execute their racial policies
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II, was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Battle of Coral Sea
Fought on May 7-8 1942; Caused heavy losses on both sides; Japanese won a tactical victory because they sank US carrier Lexington; Americans claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
Quit India Movement
Mass civil disobedience campaign that began in the summer of 1942 to end British control of India
an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Leader of the Muslim League and first president of Pakistan.
Convention Peoples Party
Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislature in Gold Coast
Kenyan Nationalist who used strong leadership to help gain Kenya's independence, and became the first president of the new nation of Kenya.
Kenya African Union
Leading nationalist party in Kenya; adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950's
Land Freedom Army
Radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by failure of nonviolent means, initiated campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by British as the Mau Mau.
National Liberation Front
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s; success of attacks led to independence of Algeria in 1958.
Secret Army Organization
Organization of French settlers in Algeria; led guerrilla war following independence during the 1960s; assaults directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French who advocated independence.
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.
Zionist military force that spearheaded Jewish resistance to the British presence in Palestine.
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945; led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, he was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security,the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
A type of bureaucrat in this era who often had training in engineering or economics, hired to support the welfare state bureaucracy.
Political movement and party that arose in several western European nations in the 1970's that opposed unfettered free market economies and unchecked industrial pollution
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
New wave of women's rights agitation dating from 1949; emphasized more literal equality that would play down domestic roles and qualities for women; promoted specific reforms and redefinition of what it meant to be female
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Russian writer, sent to Gulags in 40s, became very critical of stalinism/Soviet policies; wrote The Gulag Archipelago
He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, following the death of Joseph Stalin, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. He was responsible for the De-Stalinization of the USSR, as well as several liberal reforms ranging from agriculture to foreign policy.
underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
Party of the Institutionalized Revolution
PRI; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920s and 1930s; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico
Guerrilla movement named in honor of Emiliano Zapata; originated in 1994 in Mexico's southern state of Chiapas; government responded with a combination of repression and negotiation
Juan Jose Arevalo
Elected president of Guatemala in 1944; began series of socialist reforms including land reform; nationalist program directed against foreign-owned companies such as United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
Most important economic concern in Guatemala during 20th century; caused U.S. intervention in Guatemala
a Cuban president, dictator, and military leader supported by the US, serving as leader until being overthrown as a result of the Cuban Revolution. His corrupt and repressive regime systematically profited from the exploitation of cuba's commercial interests. As a result, his July 26th Movement and other rebelling elements led a guerilla uprising against his regime which culminated in his eventual defeat.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Ernesto "Che" Guevara
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967.
An activist Catholic religious movement that combines Catholic beliefs with a passion for social justice for the poor.
President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
Nicaraguan Socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino; successfully carried out a Socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980s.
leader of the sandinistas in Nicaragua; led a resistence movement against U.S. occupation until he was assassinated in 1934
Term given to governments supported or created by the United States in Central America; believed to be either corrupt or subservient to U.S. interests.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Alliance for Progress
(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
Founded as an independent nation in 1972; formerly East Pakistan.
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. She was also prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977.
Elected in 1986, she was the first female president of the Philippines.
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
a Pakistani politician who chaired the Pakistan People's Party and the first woman elected to lead a Muslim State. She has been elected twice and was Pakistan's first and only female prime minister. She heavily focused on education or women's issues; assassinated by extremists
An approach to religious belief and practice that stresses the literal interpretation of texts sacred to the religion in question and the application of their precepts to all aspects of social life; increasingly associated with revivalist movements in a number of world religions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism.
Food or industrial crops for which there is a high demand in industrialized economies; prices of such products tend to fluctuate widely; typically the primary exports of Third World economies.
Industrialized nations' continued dominance of the world economy; ability of the industrialized nations to maintain economic colonialism without political colonialism
Gamal Abdul Nasser
Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956
Free Officers Movement
Military nationalist movement in Egypt founded in the 1930s; often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood; led coup to seize Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952.
an Islamic (Sunni) religious and political organization dedicated to the establishment of a nation based on Islamic principles. Founded in Egypt in 1928
term used to describe the transformation of agriculture in many developing nations that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
militant religious and political leader of Iran who took power from the Shah in the Iranian Revolution of 1979, denouncing both the United States and the Soviet Union in the process.
Under apartheid, areas in South Africa designated for ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; such areas tend to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.
African National Congress
Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority rule; until 1990s declared illegal
Black African leader who, along with Nelson Mandela, opposed apartheid system in South Africa
Born 1918. 11th President of South Africa. Spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid. Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
(1946-1977) An organizer of black consciousness movement in South Africa, in opposition to apartheid; murdered while in police custody
F.W. de Clerk
South African leader who ended apartheid
A far-flung group of countries and parts of countries (Extending clockwise on the map from New Zealand to Chile) sharing the following criteria: they face the Pacific Ocean; they evince relatively high levels of economic development, industrialization, and urbanization; their imports and exports mainly move across Pacific waters.
Island off Chinese mainland; became refuge for Nationalist Chinese regime under Chiang Kai-shek as Republic of China in 1948; successfully retained independence with aid of United States; rapidly industrialized after 1950s.
Liberal Democratic Party
Monopolized Japanese government from its formation in 1955 into the 1990s; largely responsible for the economic reconstruction of Japan.
Republic of Korea
Southern half of Korea sponsored by United States following World War II; headed by nationalist Syngman Rhee; developed parliamentary institutions but maintained authoritarian government; defended by UN forces during Korean War; underwent industrialization and economic emergence after 1950s
People's Democratic Republic of Korea
Northern half of Korea dominated by USSR; long headed by Kim II-Sung; attacked south in 1950 and initiated Korean War; retained independence as a communist state after the war.
a British colony in China, received after the first Opium War and returned to China in 1997; major commercial center
Example of huge industrial groups that wield great power in modern Korea; virtually governed Korea's southeastern coast; vertical economic organization with ships, supertankers, factories, schools, and housing units.
Son and successor of Chiang Kai-shek as ruler of Taiwanese government in 1978; continued authoritarian government; attempted to lessen the gap between followrs of his father and indigenous islanders
People's Republic of China
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
Basis for China's Communist government organization; cadre advisors were attached to military contingents at all levels.
People's Liberation Army
the national army of Communist China
Economic policy of Mao Zedong; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955; cooperatives became farming collectives in 1956.
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
Chinese Communist politicians such as Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui; determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level; opposed Great Leap Forward.
Wife of Mao Zedong; one of Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported Cultural Revolution of 1965; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
student brigades utilized by Mao Zedong and his political allies during the cultural revolution to discredit mao's political enemies
Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and four political allies who attempted to seize control of Communist government in China from the pragmatists; arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1976 following Mao Zedong's death.
Peasant revolution in southern Victnam during the late 1770s; succeeded in toppling the Nguyen dynasty; subsequently unseated the Trinh dynasty of northern Vietnam.
Last surviving member of Nguyen dynasty following Tayson Rebellion in Vietnam; with French support retook southern Vietnam; drove Tayson from northern Vietnam by 1802; proclaimed himself emperor with capital at Hue.
Second emperor of a united Vietnam; successor of Nguyen Anh; ruled from 1820 to 1841; sponsored emphasis of Confucianism; persecuted Catholics.
Vietnamese Nationalist Party
Also known as the Vietnamese Quoc Dan Dong or VNQDD; active in 1920s as revolutionary force committed to violent overthrow of French colonialism.
Communist Party of Vietnam
The primary nationalist party after the defeat of the VNQDD in 1929; led from 1920s by Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
leader of the Communist Party in Indochina after WWII; led Vietnamese against the French, then North Vietnamese against the United States in the Vietnam War
Vo Nguyen Giap
Hi Chi Minh's most trusted lieutenant, he led the Viet Minh in a victory over the French that concluded with the battle at Dien Bien Phu.
Dien Bien Phu
A town of northwest Vietnam near the Laos border. The French military base here fell to Vietminh troops on May 7, 1954, after a 56-day siege, leading to the end of France's involvement in Indochina.
Ngo Dinh Diem
American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. He was killed in a coup in 1963.
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. This era was a traumatic period in Russian history—a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. In June 1991 he came to power on a wave of high expectations. On June 12, he was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But he never recovered his popularity after endorsing radical economic reforms in early 1992 which were widely blamed for devastating the living standards of most of the Russian population. By the time he left office, he was a deeply unpopular figure in Russia, with an approval rating as low as two percent by some estimates.
Persian Gulf War
a 1991 war in which the United States and its UN allies drove invading Iraqi forces out of neighboring Kuwait
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
An organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management
North American Free Trade Agreement
Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.