55 terms

Information Systems Ch 6

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Benefits of high-quality information
Information is everywhere in an organization. Employees must be able to obtain and analyze the many different levels, formats, and granularities of organizational information to make decisions. Successfully collecting, compiling, sorting, and analyzing information can provide tremendous insight into how an organization is performing
Transactional information
Encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks
Analytical information
Encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks
Real-time information
Immediate, up-to-date information
Real-time system
Provides real-time information in response to requests
Characteristics of High-quality Information
Accurate, Complete, Consistent, Unique, Timely
The four primary sources of low quality information include
Customers intentionally enter inaccurate information to protect their privacy. Different entry standards and formats. Operators enter abbreviated or erroneous information by accident or to save time. Third party and external information contains inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and errors
Costs of using low quality information
Inability to accurately track customers. Difficulty identifying valuable customers. Inability to identify selling opportunities. Marketing to nonexistent customers. Difficulty tracking revenue. Inability to build strong customer relationships
Benefits if good information
High quality information can significantly improve the chances of making a good decision. Good decisions can directly impact an organization's bottom line
Database
maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
Database management systems (DBMS)
Allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in a relational database
Data element
The smallest or basic unit of information
Data model
Logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures
Metadata
Provides details about data
Data dictionary
Compiles all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model
Entity
A person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
Attribute (field, column)
The data elements associated with an entity. The columns in each table contain the attributes
Record
A collection of related data elements
Primary key
A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Foreign key
A primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables
A well-designed database should
Handle changes quickly and easily. Provide users with different views. Have only one physical view. Have multiple logical views
Physical view
Deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
Logical view
Focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs
Scalability
Refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
Performance
Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
Information redundancy
The duplication of data or storing the same information in multiple places. Inconsistency is one of the primary problems with redundant information
Information integrity
measures the quality of information
Integrity constraint
rules that help ensure the quality of information
Password
Provides authentication of the user
Access level
Determines who has access to the different types of information
Access control
Determines types of user access, such as read-only access
Data-driven websites
An interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database
Data warehouse
A logical collection of information gathered from many different operational databases that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks. The primary purpose of a data warehouse is to aggregate information throughout an organization into a single repository for decision-making purposes
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
A process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse
Data mart
Contains a subset of data warehouse information
Dimension
A particular attribute of information
Cube
Common term for the representation of multidimensional information
Information cleansing or scrubbing
A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information.
Data mining
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
Data-mining tools
Use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information: Classification, Estimation, Affinity grouping, Clustering
Structured data
Data already in a database or a spreadsheet
Unstructured data
Data does not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails
Text mining
Analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences.
Web mining
Analyzes unstructured data associated with websites to identify consumer behavior and website navigation
Common forms of data-mining analysis capabilities include
Cluster analysis, Association detection, Statistical analysis
Cluster analysis
A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
Association detection
Reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships.
Statistical analysis
Performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis.
Forecast
Predictions made on the basis of time-series information.
Time-series information
Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency.
Business Intelligence enables business users to receive data for analysis that is:
Reliable, Consistent, Understandable, Easily manipulated.
Informing
Accessing large amounts of data from different management information systems.
Infographics
Displays information graphically.
Data visualization
Allows users to "see" or visualize data to transform information into a business perspective.
Data visualization tools
Sophisticated analysis techniques such as pie charts, controls, instruments, maps, time-series graphs, and more.