summer assignment
Policies regarding Native Americans (1860-80)
- reservations
- Native Americans depended on US (for food, clothes, etc)
- assimilation (Christianity, English, school, men farm, etc)
- civilize them
- make them white
Government's response to big business of the late 1800s
- pools --> business consolidation
- trusts --> monopolies
- Sherman Anti-Trust Act --> no trusts (not effective)
- Laissez-faire
Holden v. Hardy
- court upheld law to limit miner working hours
- dangerous job
Lochner v. New York
- court struck down law limiting bakers' hours
- not a dangerous job
Muller v. Oregon
- court limited working hours for women working in laundry shop
- dangerous to reproductive health
- result --> limit jobs that women can have
Seventeenth Amendment
- direct election of senators
- previously elected by state legislature
- party bosses are still able to control elections
Eighteenth Amendment
- prohibition
- women's movement started it (keep morals in society)
New Nationalism
- Teddy Roosevelt
- government should regulate economic activity
- won't destroy big business
New Freedom
- Wilson
- concentrated
- break up monopolies but don't restore laissez-faire
- enhance government authority to protect and regulate
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
- created Federal Trade Commission (investigate companies for unfair trade practices)
- prevent corporate abuses by expanding government's regulatory powers
- corrected problems with Sherman Anti-Trust Act
- outlawed monopolies
Dollar Diplomacy
- use of private funds to serve US economic goals
- gained profit for US finances
- tie money to whatever you want done
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
- Latin American countries need to stabilize policies and finances
- if they continued to be bad, US would have to intervene
- US is the superior and civilized nation
- Monroe --> tells Europe to stay out of US stuff
Espionage and Sedition Acts
- don't say anything against the draft, the government, or the military
- banned treasonous mail
- no spying
Schenck v US
- upheld Espionage Act
- courts sided with a law that was unconstitutional
Abrams v US
- upheld Sedition Act
- courts sided with a law that was unconstitutional
Wilson's Fourteen Points
- diplomacy, freedom of the seas, lower tariffs, reductions in armaments, decolonization, evacuate troops from Europe, self-determinate
*League of Nations
Paris Peace Conference
- Versailles
- Big 4 (not 5 yet)
- Germany will pay reparations for WWI
- blame Germany for war
League of Nations
- 5 member nations
- elected delegates from smaller countries
- Wilson
Treaty of Versailles
- didn't mention some of Wilson's 14 Points
- lots of people in the US didn't like it
- Lodge Reservations --> don't want League of Nations because Europe could interfere in US affairs
National Origins Act
- apportioned new quotas for European countries
- a set amount from each country could immigrate
- limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
- designed to make loans to banks, insurance companies and railroads
- lent lots of money to people at the top of the system (trickle down)
- didn't work
Hawtley-Smoot Tariff
- raised duties by 1/3
- weakened economy more (rather than reversing the recession)
- made it harder for other countries to sell products and earn money to pay back debts to US and buy from US)
Economics of Scarcity
- combat depression
- restore purchasing power to farmers, blue-collar workers, and middle class
- cut production (prices would rise)
- producers would make more profit and workers would earn more
Tennessee Valley Authority
- economy > environment
- dams would control food and generate hydroelectric power
- enhance economy
- caused pollution, but achieved goals
Social Security Act
- force Americans to save money
- workers who paid Social Security taxes would get retirement benefits at age 65
- created some welfare programs
Dawes Plan of 1924
- reduced Germany's annual war payments
- provided more loans to Germany
- German debt was eventually cut in half
Good Neighbor Policy
- US would be less blatant in its dominion of Latin America
- economic control, not military
- nicer domination
Policy of Appeasement
- overlook Hitler's small crimes
- allow him to take smaller territories
The Munich Conference
- Hitler took Austria and Czechoslovakia
- Britain and France let Hitler get away with it
- thought Hitler was done taking countries
Stimson Doctrine
- response to Japanese in Manchuria
- moral lecture (we can't do anything else)
- US wouldn't recognize any impairment in China's sovereignty or Open Door
The Europe First Formula
- beat Germany, then go to Japan
- don't want Britain to lose war
- US is worried about Germans making the atomic bomb
- if Germany won the war, US would be threatened more
Teheran Conference
- Stalin, Churchill, and FDR met to reconcile (we left Soviets out of Italian surrender)
- FDR finally said he'd start the second front
- decided on Operation Overlord (for D-Day)
The Manhattan Project
- secret program for atomic bomb
- test bomb in New Mexico desert
Hirabayashi and Korematsu Cases
- upheld Japanese internment policies
Executive Order No. 8802
- required employers in defense industries to make jobs available without discrimination
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
- US, Britain, Chinese, and Soviet representative
- supreme security council
- 5 permanent members (France is the 5th)
Yalta Conference
- Britain wanted to make France a partner in postwar occupation of Germany
- Soviets want Germany to pay for the war
- US wanted UN
- US agrees with Britain, but we need Soviets to help us in the Pacific
Potsdam Conference
- new German policies
- complete disarmament
- dismantle industry used for military
- no more Nazism
- war crimes trials
Taft-Hartley Act
- unpopular with workers
- no closed shop
- union workers had to swear they weren't communists
- Congress approved it over Truman's veto
Dynamic Conservatism
- Eisenhower
- conservative in money and liberal with people
Highway Act of 1956
- Eisenhower
- national defense
- approved funds for interstate highway system
- facilitate commerce and enable military to move around US more easily
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka
- separate but equal is not equal
- integrate
- didn't call for integration until second Brown v Board
- integrate with all deliberate speed
Truman Doctrine
- support free peoples who are resisting subjugation
Mr. X Article
- anticommunism speech
- containment
Containment Doctrine
- contain communism
Marshall Plan
- achieve US goals in Europe
- foreign aid to Europe
- money given must be spent on American-made products
- keep countries stable so they'll stay trading partners
- caused inflation and didn't solve the problem
Eisenhower Doctrine
- US would interne in Middle East if any government threatened by a communist takeover asked for help
New Frontier
- end racial discrimination
- medical care for elderly
- stop recession
Great Society
- Johnson
- war on poverty
- civil rights
- accomplish JFK's goals
Civil Rights Act of 1964
- no discrimination on color, race, religion, sex, or national origin
- applied to public accommodations and employment
- government could withhold funds from public agencies that discriminated
Principle of Flexible Response
- policy for Soviet Union and 3rd World Countries
- US would respond with whatever means necessary in a given situation
Strategic Hamlet Program
- isolate peasants from Vietcong (southern rebels)
- put them in compounds
- alienated villagers
- meant to avoid killing our allies
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
- president can take all necessary measures to rebel armed attacks against US and prevent further aggression
Nixon Doctrine
- US would help nations that helped themselves
- build up Vietnamese forces to replace US forces
- first part of Nixon-Kissinger Grand Strategy
- negotiate with Soviets
- check Soviet expansion
- limit Soviet arms buildup
Carter Doctrine
- The US would intervene unilaterally and militarily) should Soviet aggression threaten the Persian Gulf
- cut domestic programs (food stamps, welfare, school meals, etc)
- tax cuts for corporations
-widened class gap
- supply-side--> give business more money so they'll invest in business (creates jobs for lower class)
The Scopes Trial
- it's illegal to teach evolution in schools (fundamentalism)
- teacher volunteered to serve in a test case
- arrested for violating law and convicted
- modernists claimed victory (trial showed flaws in fundamentalism)
Twenty-First Amendment
- repealed prohibition