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Digestive System Review
Terms in this set (38)
Stomach secretion that is converted to PEPSIN by the presence of HCL acid. Breaks down proteins into smaller peptide chains.
1st part of the small intestine. 1 foot long. Common bile duct and pancreatic duct open into the ___________.
Largest part of the small intestine. Vitamin B-12 absorbed here (if intrinsic factor is bound to it)
ileal cecal valve
Valve between the small intestine and the large intestine. Prevents contents from the large intestine from going back into the small intestine
1st part of the large intestine (colon). Fecal contents are liquid.
Last part of the large intestine that leads to the rectum.
Most absorptive part of the small intestine
Basic functions of the Gastrointestinal tract
Ingest food, digest food, absorb nutrients, excrete solid wastes
Processes that break large pieces of food into smaller pieces.
Chemical (digestive enzymes) breakdown of food. Chemical bonds are broken: Carbs into saccharides, Proteins into amino acids, Lipids into fatty acids.
ring of muscle between the esophagus and the stomach. (C)
(G) ring of muscle between the stomach and duodenum.
Functions of the LIVER
Secretes and stores bile
Removes and stores glucose in the form of Glycogen
Detoxifies harmful compounds (Ammonia)
Nutrient conversions (fats, proteins, glycogen)
Exocrine function of the pancreas
Secretes enzymes via the pancreatic duct -- into the duodenum.
Function of Mucus in the stomach
lubricates and protects the stomach lining from acid
Purpose of HCl acid in the stomach
Dissolves food and maintains a pH of 1-3 to kill bacteria
Where is Intrinsic factor secreted and what does it do?
Secreted by the stomach and binds with Vit. B12 so it can be absorbed later in the terminal ileum
What is gastrin and where is it secreted?
A hormone that regulates gastric secretions. Secreted by the stomach.
Effect of Chyme with a pH of 3 or higher (in the duodenum)
increases gastric secretions in the stomach
Effect of Chyme with a pH of 2 or lower (in the duodenum
lowers gastric secretions
Examples of things that get absorbed in the stomach
Aspirin, alcohol, glucose, honey, lipid soluble substances
3 modifications that increase absorptive surface in the small intestine
1) circular folds in the mucosa and submucosa
2) villi - fingerlike projections from the mucosa
3) microvilli - covers the villi; each contains an arteriole, venule and lymph vessel (lacteal)
Where is peptidase secreted and what does it do?
Small intestine: breaks down peptide chains into amino acids
Where are disaccharidases secreted and what do they do?
Small intestine: breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose)
What organ of the digestive tract secretes Trypsin and Chymotrypsin and what is their function?
Pancreas: proteolytic enzymes that breakdown polypeptides into peptides (before peptidases work)
Which organ secretes bicarb HCO3-? What is its purpose?
Pancreas: to neutralize the acidity of the chyme.
What is the function of pancreatic amylase?
Breaks down polysaccharides into disaccharides
What do pancreatic lipase digest?
What is the function of pancreatic nucleases?
DNA/RNA reduction into nucleotides
What effect does the hormone Secretin have on the pancreas? liver?
Pancreas: increases secretion of bicarbonate ions
Liver: increases bile secretion
What effect does the hormone Cholecystokinin have on the pancreas? liver?
Pancreas: increases enzymatic secretions
Liver: stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release bile.
What stimulates the secretion of Secretin and Cholecystokinin?
Secretin: presence of acidic chyme
Cholecystokinin: presence of amino acids and fatty acids in the chyme
What is the primary function of the large intestine?
the absorption of water and salts and the formation of solid waste (Feces)
Why is normal flora (bacteria) important to a healthy colon?
Microbial activity aids in feces formation and makes up 30% of the dry weight of feces.
Aids in the synthesis of vitamin K (used in blood clotting formation)
What stimulates the defecation reflex?
When a mass of fecal material distends the colon causing stretch receptors to trigger a contraction of the colon, relaxation of the internal sphincter and contraction of the external sphincter. The anoderm samples the rectal contents and sends a message to the brain so you can make a decision to empty or store.
What is the function of bile?
Neutralizes stomach acids
Emulsify lipids for better absorption
Excretion of bilirubin
Path of a bolus of food
small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) large intestine (Cecum, Colon - ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid)
What enzyme is secreted in saliva and what is its function?
Salivary Amylase: digests starches
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