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III. Afghanistan and Pakistan after 9/11/2001

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U.S. Congress
authorized the use of forcer against those responsible for the 9/11 attacks
George W. Bush
U.S. president who demanded that the Taliban hand over bin Laden and dismantle the Taliban following the 9/11 attacks
nineteen
members of NATO declared that the 9/11 attacks amounted to an attack against all the NATO nations and provided military force to assist America's military in Afghanistan
October 7, 2001
U.S. and British forces began bombing strategic locations in Afghanistan
Operation Enduring Freedom
military goal was to topple the Taliban and destroy the al Qaeda network throughout Afghanistan
300 U.S. troops and 100 CIA officers
directed the U.S. bombers from the ground at the beginning of the war against Afghanistan
more than 3,000
Afghan civilians lost their lives in the initial bombing campaign
more than 9,000
foreign fighters from Pakistan who came to defend Afghanistan as well as 1000s of others from Uzbekistan and other Arab countries
1000s of Afghans
were captured and held were captured and held in prisons
fled Kabul on November 13, 2001
the Taliban; approximately 5 weeks after the initial bombing
safely fled to a complex of caves known as Tora Bora near Pakistan's border
bin Laden and retreating Taliban and al Qaeda forces
U.S. Commanders
feared that low troop numbers and a weakly secured border with Pakistan would allow the Taliban and al Qaeda to flee for safety
Hamid Karzai
Pashtun learder from Southern Afghanistan who became Afghanistan's interim leader before the end of November 2011
500 people from all parts of Afghanistan
met to draft a new constitution at what is referred to as a loya jirgu (grand council)
one of the World's poorest countries
the country of Afghanistan
45
Afghanistan's life expectancy, which is on of the lowest in the world
International governments and organizations
pledged billions of dollars for the recovery effort that was needed to rebuild and stabilize Afghanistan which would discourage the Taliban from returning
funded Warlords and their militias
the U.S.A. did this in hopes of providing security, resulting in torture and brutality
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)
Nato took over its leadership and expanded military operations throughout the country instead of just Kabul
Demands made upon Pakistan by the USA
end its support for the Taliban and al Qaeda; allow the use of their military bases; stop their fighters from crossing the border to fight with the Afghan military
President Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell
pressured Pakistan to denounce terrorism and stop their attacks within India as both of these countries had a nuclear weapon arsenal
Musharraf
military leader who began a war with India, overthrew the Pakistani government in a military coup, established a military dictatorship, survived 2 assassination attempts in December 2003
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
Northwestern part of Afghanistan still governed by rules established while under British rule; safe haven for the Taliban and al Qaeda
Madrid, London and Bali
cities where terrorist attacks occurred that had been planned by al Qaeda while hiding in Pakistan
Iraq
3 months after the 9/11 attack, President Bush declared this country as part of the "axis of evil" that threatened the United States in a 'global war' of terror
reasons given for invading Iraq
they were thought to possess Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) and supporters of al Qaeda; both of these were never confirmed
Afghans began to support the Taliban in 2003
especially in the poorest and most neglected region located in sourthern Afghanistan
the Taliban
opposed the education of girls, killed 85 teachers and students; burned down 187 schools in 2006
military tactics adopted in 2006 by the Taliban
suicide attacks; roadside bombings; use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs)
Senator Joseph Biden
declared on May 17, 2002 that "Not only is the U.S. failing to rein in the warlords, we are making the the centerpiece of our strategy."
Drone warfare
based on the maneuver of hand remote control unmanned aircrafts shoot missiles at specific targets
corruption in forming an Afghan democracy
hugely inflated salaries; bribes and payoffs of government officials, police, courts, and foreign contractors
May 1998
Pakistan conducted its first nuclear tests
4
in its 52 year history, Pakistan has been taken over by a military dictatorship this many times
over $18 billion dollars
amount invested in by the U.S.
United States, Great Britain and Canada
are currently shouldering an unfair load of the burden in Afghanistan as NATO countries pull back their forces and support
none that are known
number of suicide bombings prior to al Qaeda forming in Afghanistan
400
percentage of increase in the number of suicide attacks in Afghanistan between 2005 and 2006
80
percentage of those killed by suicide bomber that are Afghan citizens
2008
more U.S. soldiers were dying in Afghanistan than in Iraq
2009
U.S, tripled its non-military aid to Pakistan in 2009, after years of funneling money to their military
President Obama's administration
see the need to reduce tension between India and Pakistan as an important step in stabilizing Afghanistan
30,000
US increased military troops in Afghanistan during 2009 and 2010, bringing the total number of troops to 100,000
Musharraf resigned
after facing an increasing number of resistance to his autocratic government
Benazir Bhutto
the leader of the Musharraf's opposition who was assassinated by a Pakistani militant group after Musharraf promised democratic elections
Asif Ali Zardari
became Pakistan's president in 2008 after the assassination of his wife who had served as President following Musharraf's resignation
28
percentage of Afghans that can read and write
35
percentage of Afghan workers estimated to be unemployed
at least 12
high level al Qaeda leaders have been killed by drones
90
percentage of Pakistanis who oppose the use of drones
$1000
average annual income in Afghanistan
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
a militant Islamist group with ties to al Qaeda that is responsible for a number of attacks in Northern Afghanistan
130,000
number of U.S. troops deployed in Afghanistan in 2011
30,000
number of troops from 48 different countries that were deployed in 2011
May 1, 2011
Osama bin Laden and was killed in Pakistan by U.S. special forces
Abbottabad, Pakistan
location of the compound where bin Laden was killed
Pakistan's government
believes that the U.S. has no intention of treating their country as an equal partner in the fight against the killing of their citizens by the Taliban and al Qaeda
secretive operation
drone warfare
93
percentage of the world's heroin due to their vast poppy crops in 2007
rise in the poppy industry
linked to the failure of reconstruction in Afghanistan