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U.S. Congress

authorized the use of forcer against those responsible for the 9/11 attacks

George W. Bush

U.S. president who demanded that the Taliban hand over bin Laden and dismantle the Taliban following the 9/11 attacks


members of NATO declared that the 9/11 attacks amounted to an attack against all the NATO nations and provided military force to assist America's military in Afghanistan

October 7, 2001

U.S. and British forces began bombing strategic locations in Afghanistan

Operation Enduring Freedom

military goal was to topple the Taliban and destroy the al Qaeda network throughout Afghanistan

300 U.S. troops and 100 CIA officers

directed the U.S. bombers from the ground at the beginning of the war against Afghanistan

more than 3,000

Afghan civilians lost their lives in the initial bombing campaign

more than 9,000

foreign fighters from Pakistan who came to defend Afghanistan as well as 1000s of others from Uzbekistan and other Arab countries

1000s of Afghans

were captured and held were captured and held in prisons

fled Kabul on November 13, 2001

the Taliban; approximately 5 weeks after the initial bombing

safely fled to a complex of caves known as Tora Bora near Pakistan's border

bin Laden and retreating Taliban and al Qaeda forces

U.S. Commanders

feared that low troop numbers and a weakly secured border with Pakistan would allow the Taliban and al Qaeda to flee for safety

Hamid Karzai

Pashtun learder from Southern Afghanistan who became Afghanistan's interim leader before the end of November 2011

500 people from all parts of Afghanistan

met to draft a new constitution at what is referred to as a loya jirgu (grand council)

one of the World's poorest countries

the country of Afghanistan


Afghanistan's life expectancy, which is on of the lowest in the world

International governments and organizations

pledged billions of dollars for the recovery effort that was needed to rebuild and stabilize Afghanistan which would discourage the Taliban from returning

funded Warlords and their militias

the U.S.A. did this in hopes of providing security, resulting in torture and brutality

International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)

Nato took over its leadership and expanded military operations throughout the country instead of just Kabul

Demands made upon Pakistan by the USA

end its support for the Taliban and al Qaeda; allow the use of their military bases; stop their fighters from crossing the border to fight with the Afghan military

President Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell

pressured Pakistan to denounce terrorism and stop their attacks within India as both of these countries had a nuclear weapon arsenal


military leader who began a war with India, overthrew the Pakistani government in a military coup, established a military dictatorship, survived 2 assassination attempts in December 2003

Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)

Northwestern part of Afghanistan still governed by rules established while under British rule; safe haven for the Taliban and al Qaeda

Madrid, London and Bali

cities where terrorist attacks occurred that had been planned by al Qaeda while hiding in Pakistan


3 months after the 9/11 attack, President Bush declared this country as part of the "axis of evil" that threatened the United States in a 'global war' of terror

reasons given for invading Iraq

they were thought to possess Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) and supporters of al Qaeda; both of these were never confirmed

Afghans began to support the Taliban in 2003

especially in the poorest and most neglected region located in sourthern Afghanistan

the Taliban

opposed the education of girls, killed 85 teachers and students; burned down 187 schools in 2006

military tactics adopted in 2006 by the Taliban

suicide attacks; roadside bombings; use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs)

Senator Joseph Biden

declared on May 17, 2002 that "Not only is the U.S. failing to rein in the warlords, we are making the the centerpiece of our strategy."

Drone warfare

based on the maneuver of hand remote control unmanned aircrafts shoot missiles at specific targets

corruption in forming an Afghan democracy

hugely inflated salaries; bribes and payoffs of government officials, police, courts, and foreign contractors

May 1998

Pakistan conducted its first nuclear tests


in its 52 year history, Pakistan has been taken over by a military dictatorship this many times

over $18 billion dollars

amount invested in by the U.S.

United States, Great Britain and Canada

are currently shouldering an unfair load of the burden in Afghanistan as NATO countries pull back their forces and support

none that are known

number of suicide bombings prior to al Qaeda forming in Afghanistan


percentage of increase in the number of suicide attacks in Afghanistan between 2005 and 2006


percentage of those killed by suicide bomber that are Afghan citizens


more U.S. soldiers were dying in Afghanistan than in Iraq


U.S, tripled its non-military aid to Pakistan in 2009, after years of funneling money to their military

President Obama's administration

see the need to reduce tension between India and Pakistan as an important step in stabilizing Afghanistan


US increased military troops in Afghanistan during 2009 and 2010, bringing the total number of troops to 100,000

Musharraf resigned

after facing an increasing number of resistance to his autocratic government

Benazir Bhutto

the leader of the Musharraf's opposition who was assassinated by a Pakistani militant group after Musharraf promised democratic elections

Asif Ali Zardari

became Pakistan's president in 2008 after the assassination of his wife who had served as President following Musharraf's resignation


percentage of Afghans that can read and write


percentage of Afghan workers estimated to be unemployed

at least 12

high level al Qaeda leaders have been killed by drones


percentage of Pakistanis who oppose the use of drones


average annual income in Afghanistan

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

a militant Islamist group with ties to al Qaeda that is responsible for a number of attacks in Northern Afghanistan


number of U.S. troops deployed in Afghanistan in 2011


number of troops from 48 different countries that were deployed in 2011

May 1, 2011

Osama bin Laden and was killed in Pakistan by U.S. special forces

Abbottabad, Pakistan

location of the compound where bin Laden was killed

Pakistan's government

believes that the U.S. has no intention of treating their country as an equal partner in the fight against the killing of their citizens by the Taliban and al Qaeda

secretive operation

drone warfare


percentage of the world's heroin due to their vast poppy crops in 2007

rise in the poppy industry

linked to the failure of reconstruction in Afghanistan

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