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45 terms

psy of stress ch. 14

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pranayama
controlled breathing strategy; known as Ujjaya
yoga
means "yoked", a form of union; also means "meditation"
asanas
different postural positions used by Hatha yoga
hatha yoga
yoga of physical discipline
raja yoga
meaning "king"; characterized by practitioners as the royal path to relaxation; has 8 components
biofeedback
involves the use of recording devices to present visual or auditory tracking information to participants of their targeted internal physiological responses
psychophysiology
field of study known as the scientific study of the interrelationships of physiological and cognitive processes; tied to biofeedback
transcendental meditation (TM)
form of mantra meditation originated by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi that removed what he considered the nonessential elements of yoga
hypo metabolic state
state characterized by reduced oxygen consumption; can be achieved during a typical 20-30 minute meditative session
patricia carrington
originator of the clinically standardized meditation (CSM)
clinically standardized meditation
meditation may be a fluid state of consciousness, partaking of qualities of both sleep and wakefulness, resembling they hypnogogic or 'falling asleep' state
mantra
a word, sound, or phrase that is repeated during concentrative meditation
six indicators of an altered state
time distortion, ineffability, present-centeredness, perceptual distortion, enhanced receptivity, and self-transcendence
time distortion
theory that right hemisphere is more dominant during meditation; left hemisphere is the time keeper
ineffability
type of experience that cannot be put into words; right hemisphere speaks in symbols
present-centeredness
mind is focused on what is occurring in the moment
perceptual distortions
regarding bodily sensations due to the way the right hemisphere processes sensory information
enhanced receptivity
unconscious thoughts may enter into consciousness
self-transcendence
meditation can evoke mystical or spiritual qualities
desensitization theory
based on concept of systematic desensitization, suggests that mantra meditation induces a global desensitization of many disturbing thoughts and images
black out theory
suggests that mantra meditation restricts consciousness of our external world and in effect temporarily deletes it from our active neural circuitry
rhythm theory
natural rhythms are soothing, comforting, and relaxing
cerebral hemisphere balance theory
during our everyday activities, the left hemisphere is often dominant; during meditation, the right hemisphere plays a more dominant role
mantra meditation
herbert benson; form of meditation with the largest body of research findings
concentrative meditation
form of meditation that includes mantra meditation in which the strategy employed is to focus or concentrate on one stimulus
nonconcentrative mediation
form of meditation in which attention is kept broader along a continuum of stimuli
mindfulness meditation
utilizes any object of attention such that there is more flexibility in the object of awareness than there is in concentrative meditation
zen buddhist meditation (zazen)
meditation that has many minfulness practices
mindful-based stress reduction
jon kabat-zinn's development
meta-cognition
thinking about one's thinking
observing self
the component of the self in mindfulness practice that notices thoughts
defuse
a mindfulness process of preventing the fusing or merging of the self with disturbing or stressful thoughts
psychological flexibility
mindfulness + commitment and behavior change; enables us to adapt to the demands of daily living more successful and hence to experience better health
vipassana meditation
a form of mindfulness meditation based on buddhist practice
loving kindness meditation therapy
found to improve satisfaction of marital relationships even in happy relationships
secular meditation
also known as relaxation response meditation; repetition of one word; beginners start with the word one
open awareness
mediator disengages the analytical mind, suspends judgement and becomes a passive observes or the images
guided meditation
focus on the aspects of the self that are relevant to your aspirations and do so in a mindful way that suspends judgement
electromyograph (EMG)
measure of the electrical activity of the skeletal muscles
biofeedback
used as relief from tension-type headaches, migraines, pelvic disorders, essential hypertension and phantom limb pain
migraine headaches
headaches that appear to be vascular in origin
hand warm
the use of cognitive strategies that increase the skin temperature of the hand; beneficial for migraines
blood-volume pulse feedback
biofeedback in which changes in the skin blood volume are measured with a noninvasive instrument called a photoelectric plethysmograph
raynaud's phenomenon (RP)
a painful condition triggered by cold exposure or emotional stress involving vasoconstriction of the arteries and arterioles of the fingers and toes; can use temperature biofeedback for a treatment
essential hypertension
a disease of unknown etiology characterized by chronically elevated blood pressure