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controlled breathing strategy; known as Ujjaya


means "yoked", a form of union; also means "meditation"


different postural positions used by Hatha yoga

hatha yoga

yoga of physical discipline

raja yoga

meaning "king"; characterized by practitioners as the royal path to relaxation; has 8 components


involves the use of recording devices to present visual or auditory tracking information to participants of their targeted internal physiological responses


field of study known as the scientific study of the interrelationships of physiological and cognitive processes; tied to biofeedback

transcendental meditation (TM)

form of mantra meditation originated by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi that removed what he considered the nonessential elements of yoga

hypo metabolic state

state characterized by reduced oxygen consumption; can be achieved during a typical 20-30 minute meditative session

patricia carrington

originator of the clinically standardized meditation (CSM)

clinically standardized meditation

meditation may be a fluid state of consciousness, partaking of qualities of both sleep and wakefulness, resembling they hypnogogic or 'falling asleep' state


a word, sound, or phrase that is repeated during concentrative meditation

six indicators of an altered state

time distortion, ineffability, present-centeredness, perceptual distortion, enhanced receptivity, and self-transcendence

time distortion

theory that right hemisphere is more dominant during meditation; left hemisphere is the time keeper


type of experience that cannot be put into words; right hemisphere speaks in symbols


mind is focused on what is occurring in the moment

perceptual distortions

regarding bodily sensations due to the way the right hemisphere processes sensory information

enhanced receptivity

unconscious thoughts may enter into consciousness


meditation can evoke mystical or spiritual qualities

desensitization theory

based on concept of systematic desensitization, suggests that mantra meditation induces a global desensitization of many disturbing thoughts and images

black out theory

suggests that mantra meditation restricts consciousness of our external world and in effect temporarily deletes it from our active neural circuitry

rhythm theory

natural rhythms are soothing, comforting, and relaxing

cerebral hemisphere balance theory

during our everyday activities, the left hemisphere is often dominant; during meditation, the right hemisphere plays a more dominant role

mantra meditation

herbert benson; form of meditation with the largest body of research findings

concentrative meditation

form of meditation that includes mantra meditation in which the strategy employed is to focus or concentrate on one stimulus

nonconcentrative mediation

form of meditation in which attention is kept broader along a continuum of stimuli

mindfulness meditation

utilizes any object of attention such that there is more flexibility in the object of awareness than there is in concentrative meditation

zen buddhist meditation (zazen)

meditation that has many minfulness practices

mindful-based stress reduction

jon kabat-zinn's development


thinking about one's thinking

observing self

the component of the self in mindfulness practice that notices thoughts


a mindfulness process of preventing the fusing or merging of the self with disturbing or stressful thoughts

psychological flexibility

mindfulness + commitment and behavior change; enables us to adapt to the demands of daily living more successful and hence to experience better health

vipassana meditation

a form of mindfulness meditation based on buddhist practice

loving kindness meditation therapy

found to improve satisfaction of marital relationships even in happy relationships

secular meditation

also known as relaxation response meditation; repetition of one word; beginners start with the word one

open awareness

mediator disengages the analytical mind, suspends judgement and becomes a passive observes or the images

guided meditation

focus on the aspects of the self that are relevant to your aspirations and do so in a mindful way that suspends judgement

electromyograph (EMG)

measure of the electrical activity of the skeletal muscles


used as relief from tension-type headaches, migraines, pelvic disorders, essential hypertension and phantom limb pain

migraine headaches

headaches that appear to be vascular in origin

hand warm

the use of cognitive strategies that increase the skin temperature of the hand; beneficial for migraines

blood-volume pulse feedback

biofeedback in which changes in the skin blood volume are measured with a noninvasive instrument called a photoelectric plethysmograph

raynaud's phenomenon (RP)

a painful condition triggered by cold exposure or emotional stress involving vasoconstriction of the arteries and arterioles of the fingers and toes; can use temperature biofeedback for a treatment

essential hypertension

a disease of unknown etiology characterized by chronically elevated blood pressure

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