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Chapter 5

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1. Describe stages 1-4 of the sleep cycle including brain waves and the kind of dreams associated with each stage.
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Terms in this set (5)
*Stage 1: Light sleep, 5-10 min.
-Brain waves: Brain activity powers down to 50% less or more, producing theta waves, occur 4-7 times per second. These waves are slower than the beta waves produced during active alert states, and the alpha waves produced when we are relaxed and quiet.
-Associated Dreams:
-Hypnagogic imagery-scrambled, bizarre, and dream-like images that come in and out of consciousness.
-Myoclonic Jerks: sudden jerks of our limbs as if being started or falling.
*Stage 2: As are brain activity decelerates, our heart rate slows, our body temperature decreases, our muscles relax even more, and our eye movement ceases. We spend as much as 65% of our sleep in this stage.
-Brain waves: Slow down even more. Sudden intense burst of electrical activity called sleep spindles of about 12-14 cycles per second, and occasionally sharply rising and falling waves known as K-complexes. First appear in the EEG. only appear when we sleep.
-Associated Dreams: None specified.
*Stage 3 and 4: After 10-30 minutes, light sleep changes to deeper slow-wave sleep. What makes you feel fully rested.
-Brain waves: Delta waves- Appear 20-50% of the time. More than half the time in stage 4. Only 1-2 cycles per second.
-REM sleep is stage 5. (Stages 1-4 are non-REM)
-After 15-30 minutes, we return to stage 2 before our brains shift dramatically into stage 5 which is high gear, with high frequency, low- amplitude waves resembling those of wakefulness.
-During REM increased heart rate, blood pressure, rapid irregular breathing.
-REM sleep is 20-25% of our night.
-Lasts 10-20 minutes then cycle restarts.
-Lucid dreaming: To know that you are dreaming. Gives you control in your dreams.
-Insomnia: Most common. Having trouble falling asleep (regularly taking more than 30 min), Waking too early in the morning, waking yp during the night and having trouble returning to sleep.
-Narcolepsy: People experience the overwhelming urge to sleep and suddenly fall asleep lasting anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes, less frequently an hour.
-Sleep apnea: Apnea is caused by the blockage of the airway during sleep. Causes irregular breathing and snoring. Causes the person to wake many times throughout the night. Can lead to night sweats, weight gain, fatigue, hearing loss, and irregular heartbeat, dementia or other cognitive impairments.
-Night terrors: Sleep is screaming, crying, perspiring, confused, wide-eyed, thrashing about before falling back into a dead sleep. Usually last only a few minutes.
-Sleep walking: Walking while fully sleeping. Occurs during non-REM typically stages 3 and 4.
-Stimulant behavior: Increased activity of the central nervous system. (sense of alertness, well-being, energy)
Stimulant drugs: Tobacco, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine.
Narcotic behavior: Sense of euphoria, decreased pain.
Narcotic drugs: Heroin, morphine, codeine
Psychedelic behavior: Dramatically altered perception, mood, and thoughts.
Psychedelic drugs: Marijuana, LSD, Ecstasy
-Tolerance: Occurs when people need to consume an increased amount of a drug to achieve intoxication.
-Withdrawal: Symptoms after stopping or cutting back on a drug after using for a long period of time.
-Physical dependence: Continue to take the drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
-Psychological dependence: Continued use of drug is motivated by intense cravings.