66 terms

Chapter 2 The Body as a Whole

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abdomen
part of the trunk between thorax and pelvis
anatomy
the study of the structures of the human body
anterior
the front surface of the body
caudal
pertaining to or nearer to the tailbone
cephalic
pertaining to or nearer to the head
coronal
pertaining to the vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
distal
situated away from the center of the body
dorsal
pertaining to the back or situated behind
lateral
situated at the side of a structure
medial
nearer to the middle of the body
posterior
pertaining to the back surface of the body/behind
prone
lying face down, flat on your belly
proximal
situated nearest to the center of the body
sagittal
vertical plane through the body dividing it into right and left portions
supine
lying face up, flat on your spine
transverse
horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
ventral
pertaining to the belly or situated nearer the surface of the belly
abdominopelvic
pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis
cavity
a hollow space or body compartment
cranial
a hollow space or body compartment
cranium
the skull
diaphragm
muscular sheet separating he abdominal and thoracic cavities
quadrant
one quarter of a circle, one of four regions of the surface of the abdomen
spine
the vertebral column or short bony projection
thoracic
pertaining to the chest
thorax
part of the trunk between the abdomen and neck
umbilical
pertaining to the umbilici or the center of the abdomen
umbilicus
pit in the abdomen where the umbilical cord entered the fetus
cell
the smallest unit of the body capable of independent existence
conception
fertilization of the egg by sperm to form a zygote
cytology
study of the cell
fertilization
union of a male sperm and female egg
organ
structure with specific functions-made up of tissues
organelle
part of a cell made up of molecules
tissue
collection of similar cells
zygote
cell resulting from the union of sperm and egg
anabolism
the buildup of complex substances in the cell from simpler ones as a part of metabolism
catabolism
the breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones as a part of metabolism
hormone
chemical formed in one tissue or organ and carried by the blood to stimulate or inhibit a function of another tissue or organ
lipid
general term for all types of fatty compounds
metabolism
the constantly changing physical and chemical processes occurring in the cel that are the sum of anabolism and catabolism
protein
based on amino acids
RNA
the information carrier from DNA to the nucleus to an organelle to produce protein molecules
steroid
large family of chemical substances found in many drugs, hormones, anybody components
arthroscopy
visual examination of the interior of a joint
connective tissue
the supporting tissue of the body
cruciate
shaped like a cross
graft
transplantation of living tissue
histology
the study of the structure and function of cels, tissues, and organs
ligament
band of fibrous tissue connecting two structures
meniscus
disc of cartilage between the bones of a joint
patella (patellae)
thin, circular bone embedded in the patellar tendon in front of the knee joint, also called the knee cap
therapy
systematic treatment of a disease, dysfunction, disorder
capsule
fibrous tissue layer surrounding a joint or other structure
cartilage
nonvasuclar, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints
collagen
major protein of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone
matrix
substance that surrounds and protects cells, is manufactured by the cells, and holds them together
nutrient
a substance in food required for normal physiologic function
synovial
pertaining to the synovial membrane or fluid
tendon
fibrous band that connects muscle to bone
cardiovascular
pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
endocrine
a gland that produces an internal or hormonal substance
homeostasis
maintaining the stability of a system or the body's internal environment
integument
the skin organ system
lymph
clear fluid collected from body tissues and transported by lymph vessels to the venous circulation
nervous
pertaining to a nerve or the nervous system