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Early America Exam 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS
Terms in this set (22)
Compare and Contrast the Aztecs, Incas, and the Maya.
They all had vast technology, mineral wealth, urban centers, ritualized religion, and complex political systems. AZTECS= vast trade networks for goods and slaves MAYA= civilization declined after a drought dried up all their crops INCAS= system of roads, fertile mountain lands, llamas
How did the societies of North America differ from those of the equatorial zone and the Andes?
they were much smaller with less elaborate cultures, they were hunting and gathering societies versus agricultural
How and why did Europeans expand their connections with Africa and the Middle East in the fifteenth century?
They launched catholic crusades to try to gain back the holy lands from Islamic regimes. Marco Polo and other explorers ventured across Europe and returned with goods, technologies, and diseases.
How did early European encounters with West Africans lay the foundation for later race-based slavery?
They saw the entire continent as a race of people who were hungry, tired, and and dirty, they formed a class of bound labor and were often Slavic-speaking which is were 'slave' comes from
What were the short-term consequences in both Europe and the Americas of Columbus' voyages?
Others were inspired to cross the Atlantic, they began making maps, germs were spread that killed many native Americans
How did the Colombian Exchange transform both the Americas and Europe?
caused a catastrophic decline in population for the Native Americans, slave African's were already part immune to diseases so that was part of the draw, dramatic transformations in food and goods, american crops changed European eating habits, while foreign grains and domesticated animals thrived in the Americas
What motives were behind the Spanish conquest and colonization of the Americas?
They hoped to find gold or other treasures to help the Spanish economy flourish like the English had
What were the consequences in Europe of Spain's acquisition of an American empire?
the Netherlands became the center for Spanish ship building and trade, by way of this American goods got to France, England and elsewhere in the Mediterranean
How did the Protestant Reformation shape the course of European expansion in America?
people were urged to spread their religion across the Atlantic to America, political divisions in Europe because of this separation caused peasant unrest, economic crisis and military conflicts in Europe making people want to leave
How did the French and Dutch colonies in North America differ from the Spanish Empire in the South?
French were more interested in trade than conquest, French aligned with the Indians who supplied them with fish and furs, the Dutch also had good relations with the Indians
How did the Virginia colony change and evolve between 1607 and 1670?
Jamestown was established in 1607, the discovery of Tobacco saved the colony from starvation, developed the House of Burgesses to make laws and tax colonists, many indentured servants arrived from Europe, 50,000 migrants from Africa, England and Ireland settled in Virginia and neighboring Maryland, slavery was legalized
How did the growth of the English colonies on the mainland and in the West Indies shape conflicts in Virginia and demands for labor throughout North America?
The French and Dutch in the West Indies wanted to expand their sugarcane, so they employed the help of the English planters, helping them establish plantations in Barbados offering them info and financing, this then led to economic and political competition later over land and labor.
How did the Puritans' religious views shape New England's development?
they developed communities of neighborhoods b/c they believed in the idea of community, Puritan leaders decided who got land and how much, as well as were the judge and jury for crimes
Why did conflict between New England Settlers and the regions Indians escalate over the course of the seventeenth century?
they had been allies for years until the colonists became afraid that the Indians would band together to be rid of the English
What role did the crown play in the expansion of the English colonies in the second half of the seventeenth century?
monarchs began granting lands and commercial rights to men who were loyal to the crown, William and Mary established a new colony (Plymouth, mass Bay, and Maine) that gave people of the Church of England religious freedom, crown had rights to regulate and govern
How did the development of the Spanish and French colonies in the late seventeenth century differ from the English?
French expanded mostly through trade, built many forts along the Mississippi River, Spanish really pushed west into Texas and New Mexico territories, had trouble holding authority in Florida over the Indians
How did the European wars of the late seventeenth century impact relations between the colonists and English?
The British colonists believed that the British property owners were not concerned with the welfare of the colonists , so they resented the British army and parliaments unwillingness to aid settlers against Indian attacks, wars were costing many colonist lives, making them wonder if the interests of the colonies and Parliament were the same
How and why were the Indians pulled into the wars between the Europeans?
they were allied with both the french and Spanish so they supported them in fighting against the British
What place did North American colonists occupy in the eighteenth century global trade network?
African slaves in the Americas was critical because it ensured a steady supply of sugar, rice, tobacco, indigo and other goods for the world market, so North America was an important part of global trade
How did the British gov. seek to maintain control over the colonial economy and ensure that its colonies served Britain's economic and political interests?
they used mercantilism to control the colonies and ensure their economic benefit, they restricted trade between the colonies themselves, increased slave trade
What were the sources of economic inequality in North America in the early eighteenth century?
there was an increasing separation in the middle class between poor people and British landowners
Under what kinds of contracts and conditions did poor people, both black and white, work?
Whites- were pushed west with the Indian slaves
Blacks- stayed in the south, couldn't leave their masters' property, whipped and branded
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