refers to a graded series of ordered groupings-- usually a pyramid-like ranking, with the most important entities on the top.
the smallest unit of data a computer can store in a database.
a letter, number, or special character.
a unit or category of data consisting of one or more characters (bytes).
is a collection of related fields, represents one entry in a table. Example, name, address, phone number.
Data Base Management System
software written specifically to control the structure of a database and access to the data.
coordinates all related activities and needs for an organization's database.
determines the information a database will contain and how it will be used and how the items in the database relate to one another.
the computer assisted process of sifting through and analyzing vast amounts of data in order to extract hidden patterns and meaning and to discover new knowledge.
the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information.
combination of people, hardware, software, communication devices, and databases that processes data and information for a specific purpose.
Computer-based information system
combination of hardware, software, and telecommunication networks that people build and use to collect, create, and distribute data.
Office information system
combine various technologies to reduce the manual labor required in operating an efficient office environment and to increase productivity.
Transaction Processing Systems
a computer-based information system that keeps track of the transactions needed to conduct business.
Management Information System
is a computer-based information system that uses data recorded by a TPS as input into programs that produce routine reports as output.
Decision Support Systems
computer-based information system that provides a flexible tool for analysis and helps managers focus on the future.
Executive Support System
an easy-to-use DSS made especially for strategic managers; it specifically supports strategic decision making.
knowledge-based system which is a set of interactive computer programs that helps users solve problems that would otherwise require the assistance of a human expert.
the branch of computer science that is devoted to the creation of computer systems that simulate human reasoning and sensation.
attempts to mimic human intelligence through logic and symbol manipulation, as well as statistics.
relies less on formal logical systems and more on experimental and trial-and-error methods.
Natural Language Processing
the study of ways for computers to recognize and understand human language.
a form of software with built-in intelligence that monitors work patterns, asks questions, and performs work tasks on your behalf.
involves software that identifies recurring patterns in what it is seeing and recognize the connections between the perceived patterns and similar patterns stored in a database.
Virtual Reality & Simulation Devices
a computer-generated artificial reality, projects a person into a sensation of three-dimensional space.
the development and study of machines that can perform actions normally performed by living beings.
a method of dealing with imprecise data and uncertainty, with problems that have many answers rather than one.
consists of a network of processors that are interconnected in a way that is similar to the connections between neurons, or nerve cells, in the human body.
a judge must decide whether a computer pretending to be human is or isn't really human.
a moment when humans would have created self-aware, smarter-than-human machines that are capable of designing computers and robots that are better than humans can make today.
1) it can be an illegal act perpetrated against computers or telecommunications, such as hardware theft or 2) it can be the use of computers or telecommunications to accomplish an illegal act, such as identity theft.
a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that can result in damage or loss.
is the process of altering readable data into unreadable form to prevent unauthorized access.
Protection of Software & Data
making back-up disks, protecting against viruses, using firewalls.
Disaster Discovery plan
a method of restoring information-processing operations that have been halted by destruction or accident.
a collection of related components that interact to perform a task in order to accomplish a goal.
System analysis and design
is to determine how a system works and then to take steps to make it better.
Example of a system
Café ordering system
step-by-step process that many organizations follow during systems analysis and design.
a five step process for creating that list of instructions.
a formula or set of steps for solving a particular problem.
Clarify/define the problem
include needed output, input, and processing requirements.
Design a solution
use modeling tools to chart the program.
the rules of the programming language.
simply reading through, or checking, the program to make sure its free of errors and that the logic works.
detect, locate, and remove all errors in a computer program.
basic language of the computer, representing data as 1s and 0s. First generation.
low-level programming language that allows a programmer to write a program using abbreviations or more easily remembered words instead of numbers. Second generation.
High level languages
resembles a human language such as English. Example: COBOL
language translator program that converts the entire program of a high level language into machine language before the computer executes the program.
language translator program that converts each procedural language statement into machine language and executes it immediately statement by statement.
Very high level (problem oriented) languages
fourth generation languages are much more user-oriented and allow users to develop programs with fewer commands compared with procedural languages.
program for end users that produces a report.
easy-to-use language for accessing and manipulating data from a database management system (SQL)
language of mathematics and the first high-level language.
The first language of business
programmers tool consisting of modules that have been preprogrammed to accomplish various tasks (NOMAD & FOCUS)
object-oriented language which is used to develop Microsoft windows system software, application software, networks applications, graphics, and video games.
high level programming language developed and also a object-oriented language. Used to write compact problems that can be downloaded over internet.
a windows-based, object oriented programming language from Microsoft that lets users develop windows and office applications.
kind of coding or "tags" inserted into a text that embeds details about the structure and appearance of the text. Examples are HTML, SGML,VRML, XML
markup language that lets people create on screen documents for the internet that can easily be linked by words and pictures to other documents.
type of programming language used to create 3D web pages including interactive animation.
a metalanguage written in SGML that allows one to facilitate the easy interchange of documents on the internet.
used widely to manage large documents that are subject to frequent revisions and need to be printed in different formats.
popular object oriented scripting language that is widely supported in web browsers. It adds interactive functions to web pages.
browser add on, uses adobe flash, a scripting language based on actionscript, to support web animation, streaming audio and video, and games.
set of prewritten, reusable object-oriented components that enable programs or content of almost any type to be embedded within a webpage.
standard protocol for interfacing external application software with a web server; manages the exchange of information between a web server and computer programs that are external to it.
general-purpose programming language developed for text manipulation and now used for web development, network programming, system administration, GUI development, and other tasks.
allows web developers to create dynamic content that interacts with data bases.
what is the process of removing errors and inconsistencies from data called?
The _______ manager is concerned with long-range planning and decisions.
A computer-based IS that it provides a flexible tool for analysis and helps managers focus on the future is
The _________ test is used to determine if computers have achieved the level of human intelligence.
Which is not a level of data base hierarchy?
what are programs that help a data base be maintained by creating, editing, and deleting?
incomplete or inaccurate
Entering incorrect data
which of the following is not an example of a computer crime?
If you were in operations which type of computer based info would you use?
What describes old, obsolete, electronic gadgetry?
If you were top management which type of computer based info would you use?
which is not a component of an expert system?
Systems analysis & design
what is the 6 phase problem solving procedure for examining an info system and improving it?
clarify/defining the problem
what is the first step in programming?
_______ involves reading a program to make sure that it is error-free and the logic works.
High-level language are converted into machine language and executed immediately using______
Which of these is not a fourth-generation (very high level) programming language?
Java is an _______ programming language
A power failure that disrupts a computer system is an example of a______
Internet related fraud
The Nigerian letter scam is an example of
Programs that automate means of designing and changing systems during several phases are__________
which of these would not appear as a symbol on a program flowchart?
which of these is the lowest of the five generations of programming languages?
which of these was the first high-level language (3rd Gen) used for math formulas?