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65 terms

Psych!

Psych ish.
STUDY
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The process of encoding refers to _______.
getting information into memory
You're consciously activated but limited- capacity memory is called ________ memory.
short-term
The process of retrieval refers to ___________.
getting information out of memory storage
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ________ memory.
long-term
After looking up his friends phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his _________ memory.
short- term
To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short- term memory, researchers have characterized it as ________ memory.
working
In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as ______.
rehearsal
Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?
Ebbinghaus
The tendency for distributed study to yield better long- term retention than massed study is known as the _______.
spacing effect
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the _______.
serial position effect
Dr. Ligorano has devoted his professional life to researching the desires and needs that energize and direct behavior. His area of research has obviously been ________.
motivation
It is characteristic of robins to build nests. This is an example of a(n) _______.
instinct
Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider ______ to be a human instinct.
infant suckling
A need refers to a(n) ___________ .
physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal
Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as _______________.
the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state
Jabar, a 25 year- old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from ______.
schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by __________.
disorganized and fragment thinking
Although Mrs. Petrides usually sites passively in a motionless stupor, she sometimes repetitiously shakes her head or waves her arms. She most likely suffers from ______.
catatonia
An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by a ___________.
lack of guilt feelings
Someone who has killed three or more people in a way that it driven by a particular pattern is called a ______.
serial killer
The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called ________.
semantic encoding
Your ability to immediately recognize the voice over the phone as your mother's illustrates the value of _________.
acoustic encoding
A mnemonic device is a _______.
memory aid
Chunking refers to __________.
the organization of information into meaningful units
Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?
Cognition
Cognitive psychologists are most directly concerned with the study of ______.
thinking
When we use the term Hispanic to refer to a category of people, we are using this word as a ______.
concept
In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make us of ________.
prototypes
In testing thousands of different materials for use as lightbulb filaments, Thomas Edison best illustrated a problem- solving approach known as ______.
trial and error
Logical, methodical step- by- step procedures for solving problems are called _______.
algorithms
Anika resisted changing her answer to a test question after reminding herself that "it's always best to stick with your first answer." Anika's decision best illustrates the use of a _______.
heuristic
A sudden realization of the solution to a problem is called _______.
insight
Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second- grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates _________.
confirmation bias
The tendency to search for information consistent with our preconceptions is called ________.
confirmation bias
The inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a(n) ______.
fixation
The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called ______.
functional fixedness
The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver illustrates the use of the _________.
representativeness heuristic
To regard an abstract concept as if it were a real, concrete thing is called ______.
reification
Spearman's g factor refers to __________.
a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks.
Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and ______ intelligence.
creative
The ability to control one's impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long- term goals is most clearly a characteristic of ________.
emotional intelligence
Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates __________.
divergent thinking
Whenever Arlo reminded himself that his musical skills could earn him fame and fortune, he became less creative in his musical performance. This best illustrates that creativity may be inhibited by _______.
extrinsic motivation
To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's _________.
reasoning skills
A 12 year- old who responded to the original Stanford- Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9 year- old was said to have an IQ of _______.
75
A 6 year- old who responded to the original Stanford- Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 8 year- old was said to have an IQ of ___.
133
The widespread improvement in intelligence test performance during the past century is called the _______.
Flynn effect
If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of ______.
reliability
A test is reliable if it yields _____________.
dependably consistent scores
A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of _____.
validity
Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is _____, ________, and ________.
deviant, distressful, dysfunctional
A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM- IV in order to _______ various psychological disorders.
identify
A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by _________, ___________, and ________ .
a continuous state of tension, apprehension, autonomic nervous system arousal
Episodes of intense dread that last for several minutes and are accompanied by shortness of breath, trembling, dizziness, or heart palpitations are most characteristic of a(n) ______.
panic disorder
Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of ______.
agoraphobia
According to Maslow, our need for _________.
adequate clothing must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for self- esteem
Hunger controls are located within the brain's ________.
hypothalamus
A child drawing a picture for their mother to hang up on the refrigerator is an example of ________.
intrinsic motivation
Jill's desire to go to work to earn a paycheck is an example of _________.
extrinsic motivation
16 year- old Jill loves ice cream and other rich foods, but she has become increasingly anxious about gaining too much weight. Jill frequently overeats and then intentionally vomits in attempt to control her weight. Jill most clearly suffers from ________.
bulimia nervosa
Phobias are most likely to be characterized by _________.
a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
Obsessions are ________.
offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person
The experience of multiple personalities is most likely to be characterized by _______.
a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness
Which of the following disorders is classified as a mood disorder? ________.
Bipolar disorder
Learned helplessness is most closely associated with _________.
depression