AP World History: Chapter 4- Early India
Terms in this set (13)
Describe the geography of the Indus River Valley.
Geographic barriers: Hindu Kush + Himalaya Mountains; surrounded by water
Indus River had larger flood plains and was more unpredictable than Nile River
Describe the two prominent cities in the Indus River Valley.
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
Organized city: Grid pattern, baths, city walls, fortified citadels for ruler
What was a major accomplishment of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro?
City sewage systems brought water and sewage away from urban population
Describe the writing system of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.
Writing system is not deciphered
Describe the trade that Indians participated in?
Traded pottery, tools, gems, ivory for gold, silver, and copper from Persia and wool, leather, and olive oil from Mesopotamia
Describe the fall of the Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.
Speculations of ecological degradation or natural catastrophe
Pastoral nomads that dominated Indus River Valley.
Now make up India
Describe Aryan political origination and their relationship with neighboring peoples.
Chiefdoms that often fought amongst themselves
Love/hate relationship with Dravidians: Intermarried, learned techniques, but also had competition and frequently fought against one another
What were prized possessions of Aryans?
Not native to Indian subcontinent= Did not breed well here
Why did the Aryans create the caste system?
Lack of political organization
3 reasons for development of caste system?
1. Means of ordering multitude of different ethnic groups
2. Means for one group of people to install themselves as power by accepting social stability for the sake of sisal mobility
3. Powerful Brahmin priests were at top of social ladder and placed them over power
Describe the castes.
Brahmins: priests and scholars
Kshatriyas: warriors and ruler class
Vaisya: farmers and businessmen
Explain why the caste system is rigid, but flexible?
Subcastes (jati) allowed new occupations to fit into caste system so that it would continue to exist