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Chapters 6-8 Crime and Delinquency
Terms in this set (60)
Three major factors of sociological theories
Major principles of sociological theories
1.Social groups, social institutions, the arrangements of society, and social roles all provide the proper focus for criminological study.
2.Group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships form the causal nexus out of which crimes develop.
3.Structure of society and its relative degree of organization or disorganization are important factors contributing to criminal behavior.
4.Statistical estimates of group characteristics are possible. specific types of crimes can be estimated of groups.
-A stable pattern of social relationships that exist within a society
-The interaction between and among social institutions, individuals, and groups.
Conceptual basis for social structure theories
-Crime is a result of a persons location within structure of society.
-Crime is the end product of various social processes, especially inappropriate socialization and social learning.
-Crime is the product of class struggle
How do social structures explain crime?
By referencing to the economic and social arrangement of society.
What do all social structure theories have in common?
-Emphasizes relationships among social institutions.
-Describe types of behavior that tends to characterize groups of people rather than a individual
Three major social structure theories?
-Social Disorganization AKA ecological approach
-Culture conflict theory AKA Cultural Deviance Theory
Social Disorganization theory
-Depicts social change, social conflict, an lack of social consensus as the cause of crime.
-Relationship between human beings and the physical and cultural environments in which they live.
-Idea of the community as a functional whole that directly determines the quality of life for its members
-Believed crime was a normal part of all societies
Robert Park and Ernest Burgess
-Developed the social ecology at the Chicago school-structure of society adapts to the quality of natural resources and to the existence of other human groups.
Chicago school of criminology
- Chicago became a area of study for ecological theories
Broken Windows theory
-When a neighborhood is at a point of repair (needs new windows) it causes delinquency like vandalism which causes even more deterioration.
What does the term Social Disorganization mean?
-Condition that exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus.
-Developed by Robert Merton.
-Depicts delinquency as a form of adaptive, problem solving behavior, usually committed in response to problems involving frustrating and undesirable social environments.
-Developed by Robert Merton
-Social condition in which norms are uncertain or lacking.
-Economic and social gap that exists between rich and poor people
General Strain theory
-Sees law breaking as a coping mechanism that enables those who engage in it to deal with the socioemotional problems generated by negative social relations.
How can anomie lead to crime?
-When people feel stressed and have the need to succeed so they resort to crime.
Culture Conflict theory
-Suggests that the root cause of crime can be found in a clash of values between variously socialized groups over what is acceptable behavior.
-Emphasizes the contribution made by variously socialized cultural groups to the phenomenon of crime.
-Process by which a person openly rejects that which he or she wants but cant achieve.
Policy implications of various social structure theories?
-Theoretical approaches that fault social structure as the cause of crime point in the direction of social action as a solution.
-AKA Social process theories
-Suggest that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others
Three social process theories
-Social control theory
-Suggested that all significant behavior is learned. so crime is not substantively different from any other form of behavior.
-Earliest forms of learning theory was advanced by him.
-Had 9 principles of differential association all were in his book PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINOLOGY
Social Control Theory
- Popularized by Charles Tittle
-Why people choice to obey the law instead of breaking it? Instead of why do people break the law?
-Popularized by Walter Reckless
-Crime was the consequence of social pressures to involve oneself in violations of the law.
-When Families etc are able to hold an individual within the bounds of accepted norms.
-When a Person able to direct themselves to acceptable behavior.
-Stabilizing force blacks such pushes and pulls from leading a person into crime.
Social Bond theory
-Developed by Travis Hirschi
-Weaken bond in a social group could lead to crime.
-Four components of social bond.
Situational Action theory
- Popularized by Per-olof Wikstrom
-Ability of a person to exercise self-control is an outcome of the actions they take part in.
Control Balance Theory
-Developed by Charles Tittle
-Too much control can be just as dangerous as not enough. A person must have the right blend AKA control ratio
-Are people who are able to exercise great deal of control over others. They work to extend their control and these turn to crimes like white-collar crimes.
-Are people are the opposite (maybe overly controlled.) People try to change balance of control by committing crimes.
-Societies response to someone who commits a crime. The term TAGGING then comes in play. A communities view on someone who did a crime.
-Developed by Edwin Lemert
-College student robbing a store to pay for tuition.
-Developed by Edwin Lemert
-Someone embracing the tagging label so they commit more crimes.
Policy implications of social process theories
-Suggest that crime prevention programs should work to enhance self control and to build prosocial bonds.
-Juvenile Mentoring Program
-Preparing for the Drug free years
-Montreal Preventive treatment program
-Seeks to build strong prosocial bonds while attempting to teach positive values to young people.
-Designed to increase effective parenting
-Targets boys from poor socioeconomic backgrounds who display disruptive behavior while in kindergarten.
Criminality explained by social development perspective
-Acknowledges that human development begins at birth and takes place within a social context.
Policy implications of social development theories
-Strengthen Families in guidance
-Support core social institutions
-promote prevention strategies
-intervening immediately when delinquent behavior occurs
-ID and control small segment of juvenile offenders'
-EST. broad spectrum of sanctions that insure accountability.
Life course criminology
-Dimensions of criminal offending over the entire life of a person.
-Has four dimensions: Participation the fraction of the pop that is criminally active, frequency of crimes committed by one individual, duration is the length of the criminal career, and seriousness.
Life Course persistent offenders
-Fail in school, become involved in delinquency at early age.
Part of Terrie Moffitts Dual Taxonomic Theory.
Adolescence limited offenders
-Limited periods of offending
Part of Terrie Moffitts Dual Taxonomic Theory.
Two parts of Desistance
- Aided-Needs help to stop being a criminal like parole agencies.
-Unaided-One cant keep a criminal career on their own
Part of Farringtons Delinquent Development Theory
-Cohort analysis- tracing a individual from birth to a certain age.
-Tried Cohort analysis in Philadelphia, concluded few offenders committed most of the crimes. 6 percent committed 52 percent.
-Significant defining characteristics. like race, religion, education, profession, income, wealth, etc
What are the two fundamental social classes that exist within any capitalist society? According to Kark Marx?
-Bourgeoisis the wealthy, factory owners
-Proletariat live by selling their labor
Today most people refer to three groups. Upper, Middle, and lower.
-Book THEORETICAL CRIMINOLOGY
-Crime is the product of political conflict between groups
-His writings led to the conflict theory in criminology
Intellectual child of three important historical circumstances:
1.Ruminations of social utopian thinkers like Karl Marx
2. Rise of the conflict perspective in the social sciences around 1900
3. Dramatic radicalization of American academia in the 1960s and 70s.
Radical Critical Criminology is a outgrowth of Marxist Criminology.
Radical Critical Criminology
-Holds that the causes of crime can be found in social conditions that empower the wealthy and the politically well organized but disenfranchise those who are less fortunate.
-Claims socialist societies should reflect much lower crime rates than capitalist societies because a "less intense class struggle should reduce the forces leading to and the functions of the crime".
-Applies various forms of feminist thought to infuse gender awareness into mainstream criminology.
-Social relations of power in which the male appropriates the labor power of woman and control their sexuality.
-Social control agencies and the citizen they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime.
Describe the three types of Feminism
-Asserts in patriarchal society men control law, woman are subjects.
-Asserts that gender inequalities arise from "separate and distinct spheres of influence and traditional attitudes about the appropriate role of men and women"
-Sees gender oppression as a consequence of the economic structure of society.
-AKA Alternative Criminology
-Body of writings on criminology by convicted felons who have acquired academic credentials.
-Offers writings from ex-inmates and critical criminologist who have joined forces in distrust of mainstream criminology.
-Largely issued based and personal.
-Writes about "convicts and inmates" instead of "prisoners and offenders"
-Prototype was John Irwin (went to prison for 5 years then UCLA and graduated, wrote THE FELON"
What do all postmodern criminology's have in common?
-Build on the belief that past criminological approaches have failed to realistically assess the true causes of crime and have failed to offer workable solutions for crime control.
Social Conflict theories
-Says conflict is a fundamental aspect of social life that can never be fully resolved
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