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cellular respiration

the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide

pyruvic acid

the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis


describes a process that does not require oxygen


nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized to NAD+ and reduced to NADH


an electron carrier molecule

aerobic respiration

process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP


the anaerobic breakdown of glucose pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP


the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen

lactic acid fermentation

the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product

alcoholic fermentation

the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol


a unit of energy equal to 1,000 cal

mitochondrial matrix

the fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion

acetyl CoA

acetyl coenzyme A, a compound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism

Krebs cycle

a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy

oxaloacetic acid

a 4 carbon compound that combines with 2 carbon molecule of acetyl CoA to produce a 6 carbon compound called citric acid, this takes place in the first step of the Krebs cycle

citric acid

a six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle


flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions

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