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17 terms

Biology Chapter 7

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cellular respiration
the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
pyruvic acid
the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis
anaerobic
describes a process that does not require oxygen
NAD+
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized to NAD+ and reduced to NADH
NADH
an electron carrier molecule
aerobic respiration
process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP
glycolysis
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
fermentation
the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
alcoholic fermentation
the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
kilocalorie
a unit of energy equal to 1,000 cal
mitochondrial matrix
the fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
acetyl CoA
acetyl coenzyme A, a compound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism
Krebs cycle
a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy
oxaloacetic acid
a 4 carbon compound that combines with 2 carbon molecule of acetyl CoA to produce a 6 carbon compound called citric acid, this takes place in the first step of the Krebs cycle
citric acid
a six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle
FAD
flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions