• Gram- negative, ovoid shaped, and non- motile
• Most common STI in the US (1.2x10^6)- data from 2006
• Symptoms: burning sensation during urination, painful intercourse, rectal pain or discharge, penile or vaginal discharge.
• Asymptomatic: 25% of men and 70% women show no symptoms (this is how it spreads)- men are more likely to show symptoms than women.
• 14th highest rates in Arizona, Alaska has the highest rate, West Virginia has the lowest rates.
• The elementary body (EB), a small infectious particle found in secretions, attaches to and enters a cell such as an endocervical or urethral cell. Within eight hours, the EB transforms into a reticulate body (RB), which begins to multiply within an isolated area called an inclusion. Within 24 hours, some RBs reorganize back to EBs, and, as the host cell plasma membrane bursts, the EBs are released to infect adjacent cells or to be transmitted to and infect another person.
• Obligate intracellular pathogen
• Infects mucosal tissues (eyes and genitals)
• Elementary bodies- only extracellular form (small, almost virus sized)
• Reticulate bodies- intracellular form
• Gram- negative (sort of): no outer membrane or cell wall, but genetically related (difficult to stain)
• Bacteria that are almost a virus: because it can sometimes pass through bacteriological filters, which bacteria cannot but virus can. Also it sometimes has an ATP generating metabolism, which bacteria do have but viruses don't. They contain ribosomes, which bacteria do, but viruses do not.
• Bore tissue in another organism and feed on blood, and lymph, which causes disease that varies with the organism
• Enter the human host through the bite wound or by crossing mucous membranes.
• Transmitted by fecal matter from insect vector (kissing bug)
-Chagas disease: causes digestive and heart problems
• Swelling of the eye, brain damage, cardiac arrest, redness of skin, rash, swollen lymph nodes, fever, aches, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, liver and spleen enlargement, endemic to south and central America and Mexico
• Parasitic euglenoid protozoan. Likes the nests of vertebrates where it bites and sucks blood for food.
• A pathogen you would expect to have mitochondria (b/c eukaryote)
• The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest in history, affecting multiple countries in West Africa. The risk of an Ebola outbreak affecting multiple people in the U.S. is very low.
• A virus that causes severe bleeding, organ failure, and can lead to death.
• Humans may spread the virus to other humans through contact with bodily fluids such as blood.
• Initial symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain, and chills. Later, a person may experience internal bleeding resulting in vomiting or coughing blood.
• Treatment is supportive hospital care.
• Spreads by blood products (unclean needles or unscreened blood), by animal or insect bites or stings, by saliva (kissing or shared drinks), or by touching a contaminated surface (blanket or doorknob).
-high mortality rate
• Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium.
• Toxins cause abdominal pain and stomach cramps, followed by diarrhea. Nausea is also a common symptom. Fever and vomiting are not normally symptoms of poisoning by Clostridium perfringens toxins. Illness from Clostridium perferingens generally lasts around 24 hours, and is rarely fatal.
-food-poisoning, gas gangrene, and many veterinary diseases
• Lactose fermenters that can cause variety of diseases such as urinary tract infection, diarrhea, septicemia, and Enteric fever. Some are part of the normal flora of intestines.
• Microbes produce toxins that are responsible for both food spoilage and can cause gas gangrene
• Gram- negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria.
• Human feces are 80% bacteria, mostly gram positive, obligate anaerobes. The two main groups are firmicutes and bacteroides.
• Each year a human will excrete their body weight in bacteria
• Colon community is filled with unculturable bacteria that can only grow in the confines of the human gut
o Germ- free mice and gut development
o Gut bacteria stimulate development of mature/high- functioning intestinal/ colon tissue
o Gut bacteria provide nutrients and vitamins to humans
-infections: central nervous system, the head, the neck, the chest, the abdomen, the pelvis, the skin, and the soft tissues (anaerobic)
• Gram positive, facultative anaerobe, bacillus
• Intracellular pathogen
• Can cause listeriosis
• Up to 10% of Americans can be colonized (no disease)
• Eclipse phase can last two weeks
• Common CDC outbreaks:
o 2011 cantaloupe, 2012 Marte brand Frescolina ,2015 dole salads, 2015 Blue Bell ice cream- 30% mortality
• A cause of foodborne illness, high mortality rate, and reason pregnant women are told not to eat unpasteurized milk and cheeses.
o Able to cross the placenta and infect the fetus
• Growth at 4 degrees Celsius (in fridges)
• Actin motality
• Symptoms: Flu like: fever, muscle aches, nausea or diarrhea.
-resistant to heat, drying, and freezing