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History Final: The United States as a World Power
Terms in this set (25)
How and why did the United States territorial expansion in the 1890s differ from the nation's earlier expansionist movements?
During the 1890s, expansionism was used as a way to gain islands use as naval bases, trading posts, etc. rather than for settlement since they were already inhabited. In the past there had been a sense of isolationism and US wanted to stay out of foreign affairs, during this time that was changing. There was now imperialism- imposition of control over others through annexing, conquest, and economic domination.
What economic, strategy, and intellectual factors sparked American interest in overseas expansion in the latter nineteenth century?
-dream to unite North and South America
-there was a new sense of internationalism
-James G Blaine thought that foreign markets were important to growth
-Josiah Strong wrote a book about civilizing the world through religion and trade
-US decided to trade with Europe to avoid conflict
-"spread the wealth"
-Annex Hawaii as a port to trading with Asia
-there was a military prowess
-"civilize the natives"
-there was competition for land and trade against other nations
· International markets
· Manifest Destiny-past the western boarders
· Industrial revolution
· Foreign competitions
· Civilizing Natives
- Wanted to gain access to foreign markets
- Americans wanted to "keep up" with their other foreign competitors (Great Britian, France, etc) and to do they also needed to expand beyond their boarders as others had
- Gain access to Asian Markets
-Acquire more territories
How did the United States reassert the Monroe Doctrine and promote Pan-American interests during this era?
-The Monroe Doctrine originally stated that the Western Hemisphere be off limits to new European colonization and the US would not meddle in forgein affairs.
-US leaders based their policies during this time on a dream of annexing Canada and South America to make it one huge strong nation.
-US felt they had extensive trade and needed to spread their fortune. The Pan-American Union was established to exhange information between nations and to spread anglo-saxon all over the Americas. US wanted to spread their wealth and become a stronger nation.
List the territories acquire by the United States during this era and explain the various processes of acquistion.
-Hawaii - America kinda just took over this nation. They wanted to keep their connections with Hawaii and the U.S. had had many citizens living in Hawaii.
-Alaska - Purchased through Seward Follie, Russia
-The rest of the territories are acquired the the spanish-american war
Describe the causes of the Spanish-American War
-Cuba and nearby islands of Puerto Rico were under Spain control & tried to rebel against these forces
-Spain fought back to keep the Rebels down
-"re-concentration policy" then destroyed their homes of Cuban's
-Yellow Journalism (not a direct cause)
-U.S. was unsure to declare support of Cuban's- wanted them to find a civilized solution
-Explosion of the Maine
-U.S. declared war on Spain
-Cuban Economic Independence
-American Cuba influence
-McKinley supported insurgents
stated that the US had no intention of annexing Cuba
Describe the Major events of the the Spanish American War
-Many American Victories
-Splendid Little War
-Dewey crushes Spanish Fleet at Manila Bay
-relatively few lives lost as a result of war
Describe the consequences of the Spanish American War
-American reorganization as a world power
-Brought the nation together
-Isolationism and anti-war feelings
-America- small empire by Euro standards
-American territories in Caribbean and Pacific
-Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris
-Spain agreed to remove all soldiers from Cuba and recognize American occupation of the area; the U.S. had previously pledged not to annex the island in the Teller Amendment
-Spain ceded Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States
-The United States compensated Spain for its losses with a payment of $20 million.
Describe the cause of the Philippine American War
Emilio Anguilla though America would give them independence
When America did not, they responded with War
Describe the Course of the Phillippine-American War
-Guerrilla warfare used by Filipinos
-Americans had to use brutal tactics:burning houses, seizing and destroying food
-opponents of expansion
-fight against Treaty of Paris
Describe the Counsequences of the Philippine American war
America established government in the Philippians that lasted 45 years
Foraker Act of 1900
established civil government in Puerto Rico
-organized the island as a territoy
-made its residents citizens of Puerto Rico
-empowered president to appoint a governor gerneral and counsel
Cuba could make no treaties with other powers that might impair its independence, acquire no debts it could not pay, and lease naval bases to the US.
Explain the origin and purpose of the Open Door Policy in China
China was being divided into spheres of influence due to foreign influence
Exclusive trade between these within the spheres
Threatened America's chances of trading
John Hay (Secretary of State) 1899
-The U.S. wanted to be able to trade in the Chinese markets without having power
For Americans to gain access to the Asian markets along with other competitors.
-Stopped Germany, Great Britain, France, Japan, etc for having too much power in China, and allowed other countries including America to trade within the U.S.
Discuss the new role of the US in Latin America and the various diplomatic approaches of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson
-Roosevelt during this period was very forward with his desire to build America in to a nation of dominant world power. Through all of these examples he aimed to increase America's role within the Latin Americas over the already their European influence
Replace Euro influence with American
Take over Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras, Banks
Support the Collary
List and explain the Causes of War in Europe and american reactions to the war
-started with this assassination of grand duke Ferdinand in Serbia by a Serbian nationalist.
- Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Due to the tight network of alliances in Europe it didn't take long for everyone to be involved. Britain and France said they would come to the aid of Serbia and Belgium. The early central powers were Italy, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. The British, French, and Russians soon took stand against them, and in 1915 Italy joined the allied powers against Germany and Austria-Hungary. All this warfare resulted from the vast intermarriages of royal families, the British and their breeding. Every single king in Europe was related somehow to the others, except the sultan.
-War was inevitable though with the militarism of European powers. The Americans saw this as Europe's problems, isolationism was the main feeling of it. While the story for immigrants was different, immigrants from Europe tended to side with their country of origin. But they did start to call themselves Americans more than anything else. Over all the feeling was that we should let Europe deal with its problems while we continue trade in a neutral position. But the unsaid truth was that we were more supportive of the allied powers due to our liking of the Anglo-Saxon race, Russians not so much.
What factors brought the US into war?
key point the Germans provoked the U.S. until they had no choice but to join the war.
The sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman telegram are the two major things that brought us into the war. The sinking of the Lusitania, a transport ship that had Americans onboard was shot down by Germans in international waters. The ship was under the British flag but the Germans had said months earlier that they would begin unrestricted submarine warfare and anyone helping the allies would be attacked. So began the outcry for revenge, much like with the sinking of the Maine.
But for the entire war the allies had blocked German and central power ports, and even prevented US trade with these countries. In the end the allies were saying that the US needs to join their side now or all will be lost. Basically what the other major problem was traveling at sea under neutrality and keep up trade with both sides.
This didn't sit well with the British who had supremacy in these waters or the Germans, eventually they said the US could not be neutral anymore, it must choose a side. The Germans will attack all ships. The British need the help of the States in the war and trade.
With the Zimmerman telegram it was basically Germany directly asking Mexico to join in the war on the side of the central powers and to attack America. The US didn't like this and it became clear that they needed to take action now. There was also the issue of "preparedness" more leagues were formed that ordered for us to be ready, just in case. Roosevelt lead this march, he wanted us ready for war.
Define the different goals of the victorious nations at the Paris Peace Conference and explain how Wilson's goals were incorporated into the treaty.
Wilson's Fourteen Points reflected peace and evacuation
Many nations were upset because they wanted revenge on Germany and possession of some of the countries
granted the US control of a canal zone of 10 miles wide across the Isthmus of Panama.
US must guarantee independence of Panama and agree to pay the same fees offered to Columbia
The Hay-Herran convention
gave the US a 99 year lease, with renewal, on a canal zone 6 miles in width (columbia)
US had to pay Columbia a one time fee of $10 millino and an annual rent of $250,000
warned Latin American nations to keep their affairs in order or face American intervention
promoted American financial and business interests abroad
designed to bring right, preserve peace, extend blessings of democracy