Government Chapter 12 Congress
Terms in this set (42)
The residents in the area from which an official is elected.
Having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses, distinguished from unicameral.
A representative who votes according to the preferences of his or her constituency.
A representative who votes based on what he or she believes is best for his or her constituency.
A type of representation in which representatives have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents; it is based on the principle that if two individuals are similar in background, character, interests, and perspectives, then one can correctly represent the other's views.
A type of representation in which a representative is held accountable to a constituency of he or she fails to represent that constituency properly; this is incentive for good representation when the presonal backgrounds, views, and interests of the representative differ from those of his or her constituency.
Holding the political office for which one is running.
Legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serve.
The process, occurring after every decennial census, that allocates congressional seats among the 50 states.
The process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives; this happens every 10 years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legal challenges to existing districts.
The apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group of political party.
The resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters.
Pork Barrel (or pork)
Appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed by that are created so that local representatives can win reelection in their home districts.
A proposal in Congress to provide a specific person with some kind of relief, such as a special exemption from immigration quotas.
A gathering of House Republicans every two years to elect their House leaders; Democrats call their gathering a caucus
A normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters.
Speaker of the House
The chief presiding officer of the House of Representatives; the Speaker is the most important party and House leader, and can influence the legislative agenda, the fate of individual pieces of legislation, and members' positions within the house.
The elected leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate; in the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the Speaker of the House.
The elected leader of the minority party in the House or Senate.
A party member in the House or Senate responsible for coordinating the party's legislative strategy, building support for key issues, and counting votes.
A permanent committee with the power to propose and write legislation that covers a particular subject, such as finance or agriculture.
(usually) temporary legislative committees set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue or address an issue not within the jurisdiction of existing committees.
Legislative committees formed of members of both the House and Senate.
Joint committees created to work out a compromise on House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation.
The ranking given to an individual on the basis of length of continuous service on a committee in Congress.
Legislative support agencies responsible for policy analysis.
Associations of members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group, such as gender or race.
A proposed law that has been sponsored by a member of Congress and submitted tot he clerk of the House or Senate.
The session in which a congressional committee rewrites legislation to incorporate changes discussed during hearings on a bill.
A provision by the House Rules Committee limiting or prohibiting the introduction of amendments during debate.
A provision by the House Rules Committee that permits floor debate and the addition of new amendments to a bill.
A tactic used by members of the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority backs down; once given the floor, senators have unlimited time to speak, and it requires a vote of three-fifths of the Senate to end a __________.
A rule or process in a legislative body aimed at ending debate on a given bill; in the U.S. Senate, 60 senators (3/5) must agree in order to impose a time limit and end debate.
The president's constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress; a presidential veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress.
A presidential veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the final 10 days of a legislative session.
Party Unity Vote
A roll-call vote in the House or Senate in which at least 50 percent of the members of one party take a particular position and are opposed by at least 50 percent of the members of the other party.
A vote in which each legislator's yes or no vote is recorded as the clerk calls the names of the members alphabetically.
A legislative practice whereby agreements are made between legislators in voting for or against a bill; vote trading.
The effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies.
The amounts of money approved by Congress in statutes (bills) that each unit or agency of government can spend.
An agreement, made between the president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate's "advice and consent".
The formal charge by the House of Representatives that a government official has committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors".
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