What are the qualities that make gold popular?
It will not tarnish or rust. It is soft and easy to work with. It can be combined with other metals to make hard objects
What peoples in the new world lost their lands to europeans seeking gold?
The aztecs in mexico and the incas in peru
Why did the overland trips to the gold fields begin in spring? What would happen if they didn't leave in spring?
Because that's when there was enough grass on the plains to feed the animals who pulled the wagons. If they left at at a different time, their animals would starve to death and they would have to leave their supplies. If they left too late they might get caught in the snow.
What was a mining company? About how much did it cost to join one?
When a group of miners got together and purchased supplies and traveled together. $300.
What happened to a lot of the people who tried to go to the gold fields overland?
They died from disease, particularly cholera. Or they tried to take short cuts and died.
What route did the ships that went to the gold fields take?
Either the panama route or the cape horn route.
What was a major danger for the sea route to the gold fields?
un sea-worthy ships with rotting hulls.
What was the panama route. What was the biggest problem with it?
You sailed to panama, marched through the panama jungle to the pacific side, then caught a ship going to san francisco. It got too crowded - there were thousands of gold hunters waiting to catch ships on the pacific side. Also there weren't enough people to be on the crews because the crews kept joining the gold rush!
What were the 4 major dangers for travelers to the gold fields?
2. Short cuts
3. Unseaworthy ships
4. leaving at the wrong time of year
What was the cape horn route to the gold fields?
Sailing from the east coast round the souther tip of south america (called Cape Horn) and north to San Francisco.
What were the problems with the cape horn route? Why did some people take it anyway?
it was slow, and it was dangerous - many ships crashed into rocks. It was the best way to get lots of supplies to the oil fields.
What was the greatest danger to people going to the gold fields?
Dishonest people who promised quick, safe transportation but did not deliver.
What is a mining pan, what's it for, and how is it used?
It is used for mining gold, you scoop sand in the pan and swish it around until the gravel washes out and the gold remains. It was used to test a new site for gold.
A mining device. It's made of wood and looks like a cradle. A perforated steel plate covers the top and there are strips of wood called riffles in the bottom. Gold collected in the riffles. It was operated by two or three men.
wooden trough 12-25 feet long. One end widened at the bottom. Looks ilke a canoe. A steel plate covered the wider end with riffles under the plate. Water from a stream ran through the trough and gold collected in the riffles
what were the problems with Hydraulic mining
It ruined the environment and only large companies could afford it. It also scared away the game.
What were the problems created in CA by the gold rush
A sudden boom in population that made supplies scarce and increased prices. An egg was $3 and a barrel of flour was $800.
What did miners do for law and order
They would make their own laws and elect officers at a camp meeting. They had their own trials and enforced their own laws.
How big was a claim? how did miners actually stake their claims? How did they keep them?
100 square feet at the richer sites and as much as 10,000 square feet at the poorer sites. They marked their area by driving a stake into the ground and filing a claim with the camp recorder. You could keep your claim as long as you worked it at least one day in three and never left for more than 10 days
What were punishments in mining camps?
Hanging for big crimes like theft and murder. Flogging and getting kicked out for lesser crimes like petty theft.
Was justice fair in the camps?
Sometimes. Some judges just wanted to collect fines, and many were unfair to minorities.
What nationalities could be found in the camps?
Native americans, latin americans, chinese, and others
Why was mining bad for native americans?
their lands were stolen and destroyed, and the wildlife was scared away.
what were miners from mexico and south america called? Why was life hard for them?
chilenos. they were often robbed and had to pay high taxes, and when their claims were rich they had to give them up
What was life like for the chinese miners?
They got the worst treatment. THey could only mine where no one wanted or where white people had already mined. They were beaten and had their businesses destroyed.
what was the comstock lode
discovered in 1859 in nevada by henry comstock. It produced more than $400,000,000 in silver and gold
Why was it hard to mine the comstock lode
It was in hard rock 4 miles long, 3000 feet wide and 3000 feet deep. expensive to mine
Why did australian gold miners have fewer problems than the americans?
Australia was an english colony so their camps had laws and government. Every camp had a gold commissioner and all miners had to register their claims.
What was unusual about the gold in the australian gold rush?
The nuggets were huge. Between 1853 and 1854 several large pieces of solid gold weighing as much as 82 pounds were found. The "Welcome Stranger" was 140 pounds.
How did the alaska gold rush start?
The Portland and Excelsior ships arrived in San Francisco bay with miners loaded with gold.
What was special abut the alaska gold rush?
It was the hardest for the miners. The weather was cold, and there was a lot of disease, little food, and few supplies.
How many people tried to get to the gold fields in dawson, alaska? How many made it?
200,000 tried, 30,000 made it.