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integumentary system study guide

T OR F: the apocrine sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation


T OR F: arrector pili muscles are associated with each hair follicle


T OR F: skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called epidermal ridges


T OR F: because body hair seems to serve no important function, there are no nerve endings associated with it and therefor no sensation from any stimulation is felt


T OR F: the dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis


T OR F: keratinocytes produce melanin, the polymer responsible for protecting the skin from damaging UV light


T OR F: animal scent glands are modified sweat glands


T OR F: the pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis


T OR F: during the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies


T OR F: the outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath


T OR F: hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle


T OR F: the protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen


T OR F: the outer protective layer of the skin is composed of stratified squamous epithelium


T OR F: joe just burned himself on a hot pot. a blister forms and the burn is painful. joe's burn would best be described as a third-degree burn


T OR F: destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil


T OR F: the skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin


T OR F: the dermis composes the major portion of the skin


T OR F: because the process of sweating is regulated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, humans have little control over the mechanism of sweating


T OR F: the eponychium is commonly called the cuticle


T OR F: sudoriferous (sweat) glands are scattered over the entire body, and the product of these glands contributes to temperature control in humans


T OR F: the nail is actually a modification of the skin and corresponds to the hooves of animals


T OR F: the reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis


T OR F: melanocytes are found in the deepest layer of the dermis


T OR F: a physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the skin color.


T OR F: the most dangerous skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes


T OR F: the dermis is highly vascularized, accounting for the often pink color in the cheeks of babies


T OR F: the dermis has a connective tissue and adipose layer that loosely binds the body together


T OR F: merkel cells are associated with a disclike sensory nerve ending, and together they are called "merkel discs," which function as pain sensory receptors


T OR F: the organ known as skin has metabolic functions


T OR F: when an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the vasculature of the skin will dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated


T OR F: regardless of race, all human beings have the same number of melanocytes


T OR F: langerhans' (star-shaped cells) arise from the dermis and work together with melanocytes to protect the skin from UV rays


T OR F: the stratum corneum (outermost layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer layer of skin smooth and soft


T OR F: because the dermis is deeper than the epidermis, it is rarely subject to damage because the cornified layers of the epidermis to protect it


the most abundant cells of the epidermis


the protein found in the epidermis that is responsible for waterproofing and toughening the skin


must be activated in the skin in order to enhance calcium metabolism

vitamin d

the glands that serve an important function in temperature regulation

sudoriferous glands

the layer that contains cells going through mitosis in the epidermis

stratum basale

hair that lacks pigment and is often called "immature hairs"

vellus hairs

the layer of the epidermis where the cells are considered protective but not alive

stratum corneum

most correct

melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing

a needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?

corenum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

the major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except

external root sheath

the dermis:

has two distinct layers

which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps

arrector pili

acne is a disorder associated with:

sebaceous glands

which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does

kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts

if a splinter penetrated the skin in to the third epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged


which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure

meissner's corpsucles

although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include

resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to attack bacterial invaders and present them to the immune system

sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. which of the following is correct

ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to repel insects


are spidery-shaped cells in the epidermis that produce a pigement

the function of the root hair plexus (nerves) is to:

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation

vernix caseosa is a:

whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands

nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of

diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis

the epidermis is responsible for protecting the body because it has

five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function

the reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that:

the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber

the _______ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax


keratinocytes are the most important of the epidermal cells because:

they produce a fibrous protein that fives the skin its protective properties

the epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement

stratum basale

water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin

lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces

melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage because the role of the keratinocytes is to:

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a pigment that protects DNA from UV radiation

which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis

fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells

the design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints, which of the following satements is true regarding these prints or ridges?

they are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person

the papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood cells. the superior surface has structures called

dermal papillae

the dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

the reticular layer

the integumentary system is protected by our immune system through the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. which of the following cells serve this immune function

macrophages called langerhans' cells

which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage

prolonged exposure to the sun causes increased production of melanin, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen

the secretion of sebum is stimulated:

by hormones, especially androgens

sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?

eccrine and apocrine

changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?

the skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance

the most important factor influencing hair growth is:

nutrition and hormones

apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem not to be useful in temperature regulation. where would we find these glands in the human body

in the axillary and anogenital area

the composition of the secretions of the eccrine gland is

99% water, sodium chloride, and trace amounts of wastes, lactic acid, and vitamin c

in addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. which of the following is another vital function of the skin

it converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor necessary in calcium metabolism

what is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn


male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to

male hormones

eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because:

eyebrow follicles have a shorter growth cycle

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