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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Components of C1 and their function are
  2. Isotype switch
  3. Adjuvant
  4. Innate Immunity
  5. Fab
  1. a Second line of defence non-adaptive/non-specific immunity. Involve the non-specific destruction of pathogens via macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells and circulating proteins of complement and acute phase proteins.
  2. b Fragment with Antigen Binding specificity, Photolytic fragment of IgG that contain the antigen binding sites.
  3. c A given variable region can be expressed with any of the different constant regions through a mechanism known as isotype switching. Is dependent on circulating cytokines.
  4. d Substances used in experimental immunology and in vaccines to enhance the adaptive immune response to an antigen. An adjuvant must be injected along with the antigen to have an effect. Most protein antigens are non-immunogenic without an adjuvant.
  5. e A complement of proteins C1q, C1s and C1r. C1r and s are serine proteases. C1s can cleave the next proteins in the complement cascade C2 and C4.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. When an immature B-cell binds soluble antigen, they are inactivated but not killed.
  2. Co-stimulator expressed on macrophages. Binds to CD40 ligand on TH1 cells to activate macrophage to destroy intracellular contents.
  3. Derived from myeioid progenitor cells, Mast cells also secrete factors that attract and activate a special class of white blood cells called eosinophils which can kill certain types of parasites (eg intestinal worms) especially if the parasites are coated with IgE or lgA antibodies.
  4. Antigens that cause hypersensitive or allergic reactions, usually involving IgE antibody responses
  5. Large signal transduction complex that is associated wit the T-cell receptor in the T-cell membrane. Contain Intracellular ITAMs domains.

5 True/False questions

  1. Function of APC cellsAntigen presenting cell. Endocytose and degrade pathogen present via MHC 1/2 to activate b-cells and t-cells. After interaction with pathogen APC migrate to lymph nodes. Only cell to contain costimulators.


  2. OpsonisationThe first stage in type 1 allergic response. Allergen in exposed to person. Processed and presented to t-cells. Il's produced which act on b-cells to produce IgE activating mast cells.


  3. Function of dendritic cellsAre APC's. Involved in mediation of negative selection of T-cells, presenting processed epitopes via MHC ½, activation of naïve T-cells


  4. IL4Cytokine secreted by TH1-cells to initiate proliferation and clonal expansion of B-cells.


  5. Double negative thymocyteThe first stage of differentiation. The thymocytes do not have the CD3, CD4, CD8 or TCR surface markers that define t-cells.