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Chapter 19


a quantitative measure of the amount of solute in a solution


the process of mixing a solute in a solvent to produce a homogenous mixture


a purifying process in which a vaporized substance is collected by exposing it to cooler temperatures over a receiving flask, which collects the condensed purified liquid

heterogeneous mixture

a mixture in which the various components can be seen as individual substances

homogenous mixture

a mixture in which the components are so finely mixed that the composition is the same throughout


in chemistry, this term refers to a material that is a mixture of more than one element or compound


not capable of dissolving to any appreciable extent in a given solvent


a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retain its properties


a unit of concentration equal to the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution


the amount of any pure substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, or other elementary units as the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12. This is equal to 6.02 x 10^23 particles.


a solute that has come out of solution


having a uniform composition, or being without impurities; in chemistry, the term is used to denote a material that consists of a single element or compound

saturated solution

a solution containing the maximum amount of solution that will dissolve in its solvent


the ability of a solute to dissolve in a given solvent


capable of dissolving to an appreciable extent in a given solvent


any component in a solution that is not the solvent


a homogeneous mixture in which all components are in the same place


the component in a solution that is present in the largest amount


a homogeneous mixture in which the various components are in different phases

unsaturated solution

a solution that is capable of dissolving additional solute

by taking advantages of difference in the components' physical properties

How do we separate the components of a mixture?

a material consisting of only a single element or a single compound

How does a chemist define a "pure" material?

the component present in the largest amount is the solvent and any other components are solutes

What is the difference between the solvent and the solute?

the amount of solute dissolved per amount of solution

What does concentration measure?

the submicroscopic attractions between solute particles and solvent particles

What helps to make a solute soluble in a solvent?

nonpolar and polar properties

What properties do soap molecules have?

by taking advantage of the differences in physical properties of water and the solutes or particulates it contains

How do we purify our drinking water?

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