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How Chemicals Mix

Chapter 19
STUDY
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concentration
a quantitative measure of the amount of solute in a solution
dissolving
the process of mixing a solute in a solvent to produce a homogenous mixture
distillation
a purifying process in which a vaporized substance is collected by exposing it to cooler temperatures over a receiving flask, which collects the condensed purified liquid
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which the various components can be seen as individual substances
homogenous mixture
a mixture in which the components are so finely mixed that the composition is the same throughout
impure
in chemistry, this term refers to a material that is a mixture of more than one element or compound
insoluble
not capable of dissolving to any appreciable extent in a given solvent
mixture
a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retain its properties
molarity
a unit of concentration equal to the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution
mole
the amount of any pure substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, or other elementary units as the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12. This is equal to 6.02 x 10^23 particles.
precipitate
a solute that has come out of solution
pure
having a uniform composition, or being without impurities; in chemistry, the term is used to denote a material that consists of a single element or compound
saturated solution
a solution containing the maximum amount of solution that will dissolve in its solvent
solubility
the ability of a solute to dissolve in a given solvent
soluble
capable of dissolving to an appreciable extent in a given solvent
solute
any component in a solution that is not the solvent
solution
a homogeneous mixture in which all components are in the same place
solvent
the component in a solution that is present in the largest amount
suspension
a homogeneous mixture in which the various components are in different phases
unsaturated solution
a solution that is capable of dissolving additional solute
by taking advantages of difference in the components' physical properties
How do we separate the components of a mixture?
a material consisting of only a single element or a single compound
How does a chemist define a "pure" material?
the component present in the largest amount is the solvent and any other components are solutes
What is the difference between the solvent and the solute?
the amount of solute dissolved per amount of solution
What does concentration measure?
the submicroscopic attractions between solute particles and solvent particles
What helps to make a solute soluble in a solvent?
nonpolar and polar properties
What properties do soap molecules have?
by taking advantage of the differences in physical properties of water and the solutes or particulates it contains
How do we purify our drinking water?