Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
French and Indian War
This struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War. (1756-1763)
French settlers who would not pledge their loyalties to the British and were driven from their homes; cajuns of Louisiana are descendants of these people
a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
Proclamation of 1763
law created by British officials that prohibited colonists from settling in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. Government is based on consent of the governed.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Placed duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries. Main purpose was to raise money for the crown.
legislation that required colonists to feed & shelter British troops; disobeyed in New York & elsewhere
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Colonists agreed to stick together and promised to stpo importing goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. They hoped that the boycott would repeal the Townshend Acts.
Sons Of Liberty
Secret society formed by Samuel Adams to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. It led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors; also firm supporters of independence.
In 1766, the English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed this Act. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
tax on glass, tea, and paper; provided for search of private homes for smuggled goods; to pay crown officials in the colonies; suspended new York's assembly for that colony's defiance of the Quartering Act.
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
committees of correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Treaty Of Paris 1763
ended the Seven Years' War. The treaty marked the beginning of an extensive period of British dominance outside of Europe.
a soldier of the American Revolution whose troops helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British (1738-1789)
United States general and traitor in the American Revolution; in 1780 his plan to surrender West Point to the British was foiled (1741-1801)
Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain.
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States.
the notion that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good.
A mob of Pennsylvania Scots-Irish Immigrants who led a revolt to protest colonial policies towards Native Americans
1774. Act that was meant to organize the colonies, but instead just cut off western land claims of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, and New York. Within the cut-off area, a government was set up with no representative assembly and favored the Catholic church.
First Continental Congress
in September 1774, twelve of the colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia for Intolerable Acts response; delegates fell into 3 distinct groups. It did not succeed
Lexington and Concord
site of the "shot heard around the world" at the start of the Revolutionary War
the site where George Washington and his troops endured a harsh winter without proper food, shelter, or clothing
British prime minister/ loyalist. Said that colonies should help pay off the war debt. Believed in mercantilism.
Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies
The British official, who was also the Massachusetts governor was determined not to budge under the colonists. He ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargo. His house was pillaged and burned by the colonists.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament,
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
this document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent startes, free frome rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Presented the ideas of natural rights, religion, freedom of speech ,and property
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris 1783
signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the thirteen United States of America, which had rebelled against British rule starting in 1775. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.