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Cognitive Stages of Intellectual Development: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational


Sociocultural Theory: Zone of Proximal Development, Intersubjectivity, Scaffolding


Hierarchy of 6 basic needs, self-actualization


Stages of Psychosocial Development

Howard Gardner

Multiple Intelligences

Sensorimotor Stage

(0-2 yrs): uses senses and motor reflexes to learn; egocentric; object permanence; concrete knowledge

Preoperational Stage

(2-7 yrs): concrete knowledge, thinks in here and now, accelerated language development, egocentric, judges on appearances, thinks everything has a reason or purpose

Concrete Operational Stage

(7-12 yrs): can reverse thought processes, makes decisions on appearances, less egocentric, structure time and space, understands numbers, can apply logic in concrete situations

Zone of proximal Development

range from what a child can do independently to what he can do with adult assistance


Children reach a mutual understanding through social interaction


process of providing less and less support so children may master a task or ability

Visual- Spatial

concept maps

Verbal- Linguistic

reading a story aloud

Mathematical- logical

puzzles, numbers

Bodily- Kinesthetic

physical activities, games

Musical- Rhythmic

songs, clapping games


group activities


independent study


nature walks

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