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Complex: Oncology Adult
Terms in this set (95)
Overall cancer rates continue to be high for which gender?
Yearly mammograms are recommended starting at age _____ and continuing for as long as a woman is in good health.
3 years, 1 year
Clinical breast exams should be performed every _______ for women in their 20s and 30s and every _____ for women 40 and over.
What test is recommended for women if they have family history, genetic tendency, or certain other risk factors for breast cancer?
When should colorectal screening begin in both men and women?
3 years, 21
All women should begin cervical cancer screening about ________ after they begin have vaginal intercourse, but no later than _____.
1 year, 2 years
Cervical screen should be done every _______ with the regular Pap test or every _______ using the newer liquid-based Pap test.
Beginning at age ____, women who have had 3 normal Pap test results in a row may get screened every 2-3 years.
70, 3, 10
Women ____ years of age or older who have had ____ or more normal Pap tests in a row and no abnormal Pap test results in the last ____ years may choose to stop having Pap tests.
When should men begin talking to their doctor about the pros and cons of prostate cancer testing?
African American males or any male who had a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 65, should have discussions with doctor regarding testing at age ____.
Frequency of prostate cancer testing depends on what?
PSA, rectal exam
Prostate cancer testing includes the ______ level with or without a ___________.
internal, external, metabolized
3 types of radiation
With external radiation, the skin is marked with _____ and the patient is not _________.
Possible skin reaction to external radiation characterized by blistering and sloughing of skin; may have to stop radiation until skin heals enough to continue (5-7 days)
A patient's skin may become _______ during the course of radiation.
Lung reaction that causes a cough, SOB, and fever 3-9 months after completing radiation treatment
Drugs given before radiation treatment to protect certain normal tissues in the treatment area
Most commonly used radioprotective drug; used in people with head and neck cancer to reduce the mouth problems caused by radiation therapy
2 main types of brachytherapy
During __________ radiation, the material is placed in a cavity (space) in the body such as the uterus.
During __________ radiation, the implants are placed in or near the cancer but not in a body cavity.
When taking care of patients receiving internal radiation, healthcare workers should wear _______ to determine their exposure to the radiation.
Systemic radiation is usually given in _______ form.
strontium 89, iodine 131
2 examples of systemic radiation
Drugs that travel throughout the body and collect where the cancer is, then give off their radiation to kill the cancer cells
Chemotherapy agents are considered _______ because they can cause extravasation which could lead to extensive tissue damage.
biologic response modifiers
A form of chemotherapy that modifies the relationships between the tumor and the patient by strengthening the patient's biological response to tumor cells
interferons, interleukins, monoclonal antibodies, colony stimulating factors
4 types of biologic response modifiers
Normal WBC count
Normal neutrophil count
Decrease in WBCs, usually neutrophils or lymphocytes
A decrease in circulating neutrophils
Neutrophil count below 1,000
Severe neutropenia; use reverse isolation
Neutrophil count below 100-200
(% neutrophils + % bands) x WBC count = ANC
How to determine ANC
When the ANC gets low and there aren't enough neutrophils to show signs that the body is fighting back, another WBC called the _________ can still cause ______, which may be the only sign of an infection at this point.
Pegfilgrastim and filgrastim are _____ boosters.
Provide private rooms for all patients who are neutropenic with an ANC less than _____.
Normal platelet range
Thrombocytopenia occurs when the platelet count falls below ______.
Administer platelets when the platelet count falls below ________.
Avoiding invasive diagnostic procedures (rectal temperatures, urinary catheterizations, injections) when the platelet count falls below 50,000
Platelet count below ________ can lead to spontaneous hemorrhage.
Normal RBC count for women
Normal RBC count for men
Normal hemoglobin for women
Normal hemoglobin for men
Normal hematocrit for women
Normal hematocrit for men
Epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) and darpoetin alfa (Aranesp) are _______ boosters.
RBC transfusions are usually performed when hemoglobin drops below ____. The goal is to keep hemoglobin between _______.
Occurs when blood or fluid collects in the pericardium (sac surrounding heart) preventing ventricles from fully expanding and causing the body to not get enough blood
An accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial sac that compresses the heart, restricts heart movement, and results in cardiac tamponade
Malignant pericardial effusion results in _____________.
Procedure performed to relieve fluid and pressure from around the pericardial sac
When treating cardiac tamponade, what type of vasoactive medications may have to be given?
increased, stasis, engorgement
Superior vena cava syndrome is characterized by _______ venous pressure, venous ______, and ___________ of veins that are drained by the superior vena cava.
Priority treatment in sepsis and septic shock
Uncontrolled inflammation to an insult in the body
Most common hematologic manifestation of sepsis
shift to the left
The presence of excess bands in the peripheral blood is called ____________ meaning a shift toward immature cells. This indicates severe infection.
2 crystalloids given in septic shock
2 colloids given in septic shock
spinal cord compression
Medical emergency because of the potential for irreversible paraplegia; most commonly associated with pressure from expanding tumors of the breast, lung, or prostate or lymphoma or metastatic disease
Initial symptom in 95% of spinal cord compression cases
Occurs when the bladder neck or the ureters are obstructed from intraabdominal, retroperitoneal, or pelvic malignancies such as prostate, bladder, or cervical cancers; usually manifests as urinary retention, flank pain, hematuria, or persistent UTIs
Obstructive uropathy may not be evident until the client develops ___________.
2 labs to assess to watch for obstructive uropathy
Results from the excessive ectopic production of parathyroid hormone and is most commonly associated with cancers of the breast, lung, esophagus, thyroid, head, and neck and with multiple myeloma
What electrolyte imbalance may be seen in bone metastasis?
When the rate of calcium mobilization from the bone _______ the renal threshold for excretion, serum calcium levels can become dangerously elevated.
At what level do we see hypercalcemia signs and symptoms?
fluids with loop diuretic
How to promote elimination of excess calcium
How to promote uptake of calcium into bones; used to rapidly lower calcium levels
sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate
2 medications that bind with calcium causing calcium levels to decrease; complication includes fatal hypocalcemia
Combat hypercalcemia by increasing urinary calcium excretion and decreasing intestinal calcium absorption
Occurs when the kidneys secrete an excessive amount of sodium and conserves a disproportionate amount of free water causing profound hyponatremia
Related to an ectopic secretion of antidiuretic hormone that is usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma but also occasionally with prostate and adrenal cancers
In SIADH, ADH continues to be released even when plasma osmolality is _____. This usually inhibits ADH secretion.
Two hallmarks of SIADH include hyponatremia less than ______ and hypo-osmolality less than _____.
How much fluids should a patient consume if being treated for SIADH?
120, 3% NS
In treating SIADH, when should lost sodium be replaced and with what?
sodium less than 120
In treating SIADH, when should seizure precautions be implemented?
Fast acting, first line of defense against bacteria
Detoxify allergens, defend against parasites
Secrete histamine, mediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction
Largest WBC, digest microbes and tissue debris, longer life
Turn immunity on and off
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