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Post Civil War, efforts and programs of the federal government to change southern society to secure the Civil Rights of the freed slaves especially in the south and to bring the country back together after the Civil War

14th Amendment

Amendment that declared a citizenship clause: all persons born or naturalized in the United States were considered citizens. Due process clause: prohibited state and local governments from depriving people of live, liberty, or property. Equal protection clause: requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within each state (basis for banning racial segregation)

15th Amendment

Amendment that prohibits each government in the United States from prohibiting a citizen's right to vote, based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude

Freedmen's Bureau

Acted as an early welfare agency: providing food, shelter, and medical aid for those made poor from the Civil War. Both blacks and homeless whites. Tried to resettle blacks on farmland taken from the south, but didn't work very well (President Andrew Johnson gave the south owners back their land forcing the blacks to leave). Successful in education. Established nearly 3,000 schools for blacks, including several black colleges. Taught 200,000 blacks to read, but it got shutdown. Federal funding created this bureau

New South/Jim Crow

Politics, "Redeemer governments" across the south, not letting the south rules themselves, Democratic party becomes the sole party, New leadership class - planters are replaced by merchants and manufacturers, Economy/Industry, "Out yankee the yankees", Had advantages: cheap labor, raw materials (coal and lumber), and water power, Railroads expanding, Textile mills, Mining/lumber industries (iron and steel industries), However, still relied on the North (they were not independent), Still an agricultural region, Society, Rise of the black middle class (educated, becoming doctors etc...), Overall income in the south, is less than in the north, Jim Crow Laws, State and local laws that required segregation in all public facilities in the southern states, separate but equal status for blacks


The landowner allows a person to pay rent and use a part of the land, for a share of the crop. Also had to borrow from merchants at high interest rates for the seeds and fertilizer needed, ended up not having anything

Disenfranchisement (poll tases, grandfather clause)

Poll taxes: required payments to vote...leading to black people not being able to vote
Grandfather clauses: if your grandfather can read, then you had the write to vote...leading to black people not being able to vote

Plessy vs Ferguson

Stated that blacks and whites were separate but equal

Booker T. Washington

A prominent black leader who tried to get rights within Jim Crow laws. Worked to earn respect, freedom, rights valued, unity between races, but didn't push for integration. Tried to get blacks the right to vote

Gilded Age

A time of enormous industrial, urban, and agricultural growth


Factories where women and children worked long hours, low pay, and in dangerous conditions


Poor apartment buildings in the city; occupied by many poor families at a time. Had very poor conditions (no windows, no indoor plumbing, no space)

"New Immigrants"

Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe (and China, Chinese did a lot of railroad work)
A lot of immigrants came to the United States to escape poverty and for new opportunities


The political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. Opposition to immigrants
Industrialization. Process by which an economy shifts to mass production of machine-made goods and factory work


Total population becomes populated in towns (major cities)

Laisse-Faire government

The idea that government was not directly involved in the companies


On the basis of a free market, minimal government involvement (in economy) and the ability for demand to dictate supply. Thus the country is controlled more by the people (especially with money) rather than the government - free enterprise


A social and political ideology that declares property as owned by the public and everyone shares the common wealth of the country; "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need"

Knights of Labor

One of the most important labor organizations. Demanded a 8 hour work day. Located in different cities. Rejected socialist idea or radically changing to communism, wanted workers to be well cared for. Very disorganized - fell apart

American Federation of Labor

First real labor union. People were unhappy with knights of labor and turned to the AFL. Association of trade unions. Conservative - wanted to make working conditions better and make sure people were being paid a fair amount and to not change the capitalist system


Philosophy of farmers. People vs. the elite and industrialized people. Benefitting the people. Political party grew out of Farmer's Alliance. Used the power of federal government to achieve change

Imperialism and War/Progressive Era

A period of social activism (making people's lives better) and political reform (uncorrupting the government and eliminating corruption) and to achieve efficiency by identifying old ways and making them modern (for example: they made medicine a profession) and also supported prohibition and women's rights to vote

Spanish-American War

War between Spain and the United States fought in Cuba. Spain sunk The USS Maine battleship in the Havana harbor (made the US get involved, had no choice). Treaty of Paris (1898) settles the war and gives the US temporary control of Cuba. The US gained/bought Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines

Philippine Annexation

The US gains the Philippines. A huge debate occurs because of imperialism (we initially broke away from an imperialistic power with Britain)

Settlement Houses

Houses in poor urban areas. Volunteered and middle class young men and women where education, health programs were provided and to help them find jobs. Helped to start the suffrage movement

Women in progressivism

Began to participate outside of the home and to shape public policy. Worked through trade unions and through reform organizations (aka settlement houses). Fought for child labor laws and suffrage

19th Amendment

Amendment that gave women the right to vote

W.E.B. DuBois

Man that disagreed with Washington (too passive, conservative) because he was more radical about the situation and wanted to focus on taking action, gaining education, fight for freedom, and have the right to vote

Great Migration

The movement of blacks out of the rural South and into the industrial North, resulting in large black urban communities, but they were still not treated well

Woodrow Wilson

President during WWI, supported the progressive reform during 1st term, but focused on the war in the 2nd term. Created the 14 Points.


The US didn't get involved in this war until 1917, after the Zimmerman telegram, and the sinking of the U.S.S. Lusitania

Committee on Public Information

Independent US agency that generated positive propaganda about WWI

14 Points

Woodrow Wilson's goals for post-WWI, most didn't work out, included League of Nations

Jazz Age

A movement in the 1920's when jazz music and dance became introduced in mainstream culture during the end of the war

Mass Consumption

Consumer goods were mass produced; booming economy, wages rose, prices fell which allowed people to buy more; advertising used to influence people to buy

Youth Culture

More accepting attitude towards sex, public drinking/smoking (especially women), shorter skirts and hair, pre-marital sex, "petting" (making out), marrying for love

Harlem Renaissance

Black cultural movement that focused on intellect, literature, art, and music. Blacks thought it was a way of equating them with whites

Marcus Garvey

Radical black nationalist who wanted Africans for Africa (blacks to return to Africa for better opportunities)

Great Depression

severe and economic depression that began when the stock market crashed in 1929

New Deal

A series of economic programs put in place of the United States between 1933 and 1936 (Two new deals: 1st New Deal: 1933-1934 relief and recovery; 2nd New Deal: 1935-1938 reform, government responsible for well being of its citizens). Relief = for the unemployed and poor
Recovery = bring the economy back to its normal state
Reform = try to fix the financial system so that this depression will never happen again

Causes of the Great Depression

Uneven distribution of purchasing power, no economic diversification, fragile banking system, international debt from war, market saturation, stock market crash

Dust Bowl

Huge drought in the Midwest that killed people, livestock, and crops. Caused major influx of immigrants to the cities, which didn't help cause of the Depression

Franklin Roosevelt

President during Depression, direct relief within budget, New Deal. Relief, Recovery, Reform; Keynesian economics (gov't spending to jumpstart economy)

Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Gave farmers money so they would not plant more crops and kill livestock, but didn't oversee the administering of money; part of Recovery

Social Security Act

Act signed in 1935; attempted to address issues of retirees and unemployed people by giving them money; still in affect today; reform

Works Progress Administration

New Deal agency that employed millions of people to work on public works projects (building dams); didn't last very long, but helped when it did; relief

Women in the Depression & New Deal

In the Depression, they worked both in the home and tried to find a job. In the New Deal, they became ambassadors, federal judges, and held cabinet positions

Minorities and the New Deal

New Deal programs didn't treat minorities equally with whites.


A global war that involved Europe and the Pacific. The US enters the war when Pearl Harbor was bombed. The depression ended and the economy rebounded as a result of the war

Cold War

War between the US and the Soviet Union to contain communism and to support noncommunist governments. This caused the red scare at home and black listing.

Pearl Harbor

Japanese attack on the Hawaii naval base that caused US involvement in WWII; December 7th 1941

African American wartime experience

Blacks still not treated equally in WWII, but were allowed to fight, which was a method of proving to whites that they were equal

Japanese Internment

Americans were paranoid of Japanese Americans, so they put them in internment camps to keep an eye on them, and make sure that they weren't spies to Japan

Origins of the Cold War

US wanted to contain communism and support noncommunist governments, and the USSR wanted to spread it


Instead of stopping communism, the US wanted to contain it; stop the domino theory (if one country falls, others will fall too).

Truman Doctrine

Promised to aid countries who were resisting communism; started containment policy

Arms Race

Competition between the US and the USSR during the Cold War to see who could build the strongest nuclear weapons

Domino Theory

Theory that in South Vietnam becomes communist, then other countries will too

Geneva Accords

Accords that divided Vietnam into North and South

Vietnam War

US fought with the French and then the South Vietnamese to fight the North Vietnamese communists; effort to contain communism; anti-war movement rose in the US (hippies too)

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

N Vietnamese attacked a US ship, then attacked them again, but they weren't sure if they attacked them at all; gave LBJ authorization to send troops to southeast Asia

Escalation under President Johnson

He became president after Kennedy was assassinated; sent troops to Vietnam

Tet Offensive

Surprise military attack on the US embassy in South Vietnam by the North Vietnamese; no one was supposed to fight b/c it was a Vietnamese holiday; shocked American public

Civil Rights Movement

A movement in the US, which included legislation to end public and private acts of racial discrimination of blacks and other minorities in the US

Brown vs. Board of Education

Law that made segregation illegal; integration

Montgomery bus boycott

Started w/ Rosa Parks refusing to give her seat to a white person on a bus; blacks refused to ride the buses until Alabama ruled segregation as unconstitutional

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

An organization of the Civil Rights movement;

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