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interest groups - pluralism

multiple interest groups fighting against one another so no one group is dominate (critique: media & elite theory)

interest groups - iron triangles

mutually beneficial relationship between executive agency, congressional committee, and special interest groups

interest groups - the revolving door

people rotate from government to industry positions, circulate in the same system

Role of the Federal Reserve

helps influence (manipulate) monetary supply (not control supply)

relationship between employment and inflation

direct relationship; inc. employment = inc. inflation

Federal Reserve's tools to manipulate monetary supply

open market operations (quanitative easing), buy/sell bonds, inc. interest rates, inc. reserve requirements.

Media's source of bias

audience, reporters, editors

Government regulation over media

FCC controls only broadcast television and radio

changes in the presidency

after FDR, role of president inc. greatly; driven by delegated power

Strenths of the president's cabinet

expertise in policy

Weaknesses of the president cabinet

own constituency, not always loyal to president

The cabinet

heads of executive agencies that are cabinet level

rallying effect

foreign policy crisis = inc. pres. popularity

Presidential constitutional powers

commander in chief (but no declare war), chief executive (but Senate confirms cabinet), accept ambassadors (but Senate confirms non-foreign ambassadors)

Presidential delegated powers

powers given to the president by congress

organization of congress

435 representatives, 100 senators

powers of congress

Art 1, Sec 8, Clause 1 - General Welfare = attach strings to money; Art 1, Sec 8, Clause 3 - Commerce Clause = regulate commercial activity; Art 1, Sec 8, Clause 18 - Elastic/Necessary and Proper Clause = can expansively interpret expressed powers for congress

congressional oversight

committees oversee standing bureaucracies with subpoena, testimonies, & use of the GAO & CBO to investigate laws implementations

party votes & role of party in congress

more than 50% of party votes one way and more than 50% of the other party votes the other way; measures how partisan congress is

Senate's confirmation powers

confirm cabinet, ambassadors, all federal judges, US attorneys, US marshals

"The Bell Curve" and "Coming Apart" - what drives new class divisions in US

IQ and values - marriage, religiosity, honesty, & industriousness (work ethic)

"The Bell Curve" and "Coming Apart" - criticism of the new elite

embrace foundational values privately, but show great reluctance to extol them publicly. (ecumenical niceness). the elites need to provide moral leadership and their refusal to do so actually cripples the lower classes.
also criticizes the new elite's "unseemliness" with gargantuan homes and opulent lifestyles. It doesn't help that govt focus more on handing out benefits and less dedicated to the common good.

"The Bell Curve" and "Coming Apart" - criticism of the new underclass

not smart, abandoning core values because elite do not tell them what not to do

Odd Girl Out - Relational Aggression

aggression inherent part of human condition but girls are socialized to be demure, soft spoken and nurturing and as a result are unprepared to negotiate conflict.

Odd Girl Out - tactics

rumor spreading, barbed humor, ultimatums, non-verbal gesturing or body language, and alliances

Odd Girl Out - reasons for

Profoundly concerned about retaining friendships and social networks (for their greatest fear is social isolation) and so girls do not resolve conflicts openly and tensions tend to build until some sort of "explosion" of anger that cannot be openly expressed.

Guns, Germs and Steel - Why the West came to dominate the world

1. Many available plant species that were easily domesticated, 2. East-West axis allows domesticated crops to spread quickly in regions with similar climates, 3. Many available animal species that were easily domesticated, Result: Food surpluses led to food storage led to advanced societies & promoted disease

Culture and Carnage - Why the West came to dominate the world

War is a product of culture; Western armies fought with sense of freedom, individualism allows for innovation in all army levels, civic militarism, seek head to head battles that destroy enemy, fight as group not individuals, free inquiry and rationalism = superior weapons & quick adaption, capitalism means lavishly equipped

Bowling Alone - causes of the decline of social capital

More women in the workforce so they have less time and energy to build social capital;
Mobility - automobiles and moving often create social disconnectedness - every 10 minutes of commuting time cuts social participation by 10 percent; Television - allows for our individual tastes to be catered to at the expense of opportunities for social-capital formation; Demographic transformations - divorces, fewer marriages, fewer children, replacement of the corner grocery store by the supermarket, replacement of community-based enterprises by multinationals

Bowling Alone - impacts of the decline of social capital

Inc. crime rate, dec. lifetime earnings, no generalized reciprocity, less parental participation so less school success, inc. Mortality rates w/ group membership

Bowling Alone - forms of social capital

bonding - associate with people like you
bridging - associate with people unlike you

Bowling Alone - impacts on social capital formation in increasingly diverse neighborhoods

communities w/ higher diversity have lower levels of bridging and bonding social capital (people tend to "turtle up"). So less happiness, fewer close friends, more time watching TV, less trust in government, less likelihood to volunteer, decreased likeliness to vote (but higher levels on interest in politics and participation in protests and social reform groups).

Bowling Alone - groups not seeing declining levels of membership

Rise of special interest groups (NOW, AARP, Sierra Club)-- but most members interaction is limited to sending a check and reading a
newsletter - But there is no common ground created by members; Support groups - some present opportunity only to talk about self, only the weakest of obligations to each other

"End of History" - what is it?

History is an evolutionary process in which governing philosophies are attempted and discarded based on how well they serve the governed - this process will continue until the final (and best) theory of governance emerges

"End of History" - what two desires drive history

comfort and recognition

"End of History" - How are desires best satisfied

modern science (and eventually capitalism) satisfies desire and democracy satisfies the need for recognition

Jihad vs. McWorld - What are the beliefs of the Jihad

forces against uniformity & integration, war = instrument of identity and expression of community, quest for smaller community, breakdown of civility in name of identity,

Jihad vs. McWorld - What are the beliefs of McWorld

Market imperative - global markets break down national borders, reinforces quest for peace & stability, common currency & language; Resource imperative - nations rely on one another for resources
Information-Technology imperative - search for universal solutions, embrace impartiality & objectivity, open discourse & societies, entertainment reaches farther
Ecological imperative - global, international effect; each imperative contributed to victory over facticiousness, particularism, and nationalism

Jihad vs. McWorld - Jihad's vision of an ideal world

vibrant local identity, sense of community, solidarity w/ people like you; breakdown of national power; founded on exclusion; solidarity means obedience, fanaticism, obliteration of individual; not democratic

Jihad vs. McWorld - McWorld's vision of an ideal world

create peace, prosperity, & unity, breakdown of national power, homogenization & depolitization, lends itself to surveillance, new forms of participation & manipulation, inc. productivity, skewed market outcomes, no guarantee of democracy, no public policy options, people = consumers not citizens, social justice & equality only needed to produce efficient producers & consumers, predictable trading partners is valued above justice

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