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Arts and Humanities
AH Chapter 15 Study Guide
Terms in this set (64)
"Europe First" strategy
Allies strategy to defeat Hitler in Europe before fighting Japan
U boat "wolf packs"
groups of U boats that patrolled the Atlantic and Caribbean and sunk more that 3500 merchant ships and killing tens of thousands of people
General Eisenhower's North African Campaign
commanded the Allied invasion of North Africa to push out Italians and Germans
George S. Patton
an innovative tank commander who told Eisenhower to put American forces in North Africa
giving up completely without any concessions
tactic of dropping massive amounts of bombs in order to inflict maximum damage
tactic of dropping bombs on key political and industrial targets
African American squadron that escorted bombers in the air wave over Europe during WWII
commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific who fought in the Battle of Midway
Battle of Midway
turning point of WWII in the Pacific, in which the Japanese advance was stopped
Battle of Guadalcanal
first American offensive in the Pacific with an assault on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands
Why did Roosevelt suppose a "Europe first" strategy even though it was Japan that had first attacked the United States?
Because he knew that until Hitler was defeated, the Pacific would be a 'secondary theater' of war; our allies were in Europe
Describe the horrible conditions during the siege of Stalingrad. Why is this considered a "turning point" in the Eastern front?
Fought bitter block by block battles in the bombed out buildings; soviet troops counterattacked and trapped the German troops; all were sick, starving and suffering from frostbite and eventually surrendered
Turning point because it ended any realistic plans Hitler had of dominating Europe
Was the Allied invasion of Italy a success? Give reasons for answer
Yes, gave allies complete control of the Western Mediterranean, ended the rule of Mussolini, allowed them to declare war on Germany
How does the Battle of Midway illustrate the importance of intelligence gathering and espionage in modern warfare?
US navy code breakers had intercepted Japanese messages allowing them to defend attack the Japanese
Why is the victory at Midway considered a 'turning point' in the central Pacific
ended the seemingly unstoppable Japanese advance and put them on the defensive
A. Philip Randolph's "Double V" Campaign
victory against fascism abroad and victory against discrimination at home; asserted that African Americans would no longer accept second class citizenship
Executive Order 8802
WWII measure that assured fair hiring practices in any job funded by the government
Congress of Racial Equality; an organization that sought to apply nonviolent protest as a means of fighting segregation
plan that brought laborers from Mexico to work on American farms
Japanese American internment and Executive Order 9066
temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group; designating certain areas as war zones from which anyone might be removed for any reason
Korematsu vs. United States
Japanese Americans going to court to seek their rights; court ruled and upheld the government's wartime interment policy
422nd Regimental Combat Team
WWII unit made up of Japanese American volunteers
were to save income and invest in the war effort
government controlled limits on the amount of certain goods that civilians could buy during wartime
Office of War Information
government agency that encouraged support of the war effort during WWII
planted by Americans to contribute to the war effort by planting their own food
Describe population shifts in the US during WWII
Americans went from rural to urban; Mexicans moved to farm land in America
Predict two possible consequences for wartime women factory workers (Rosie the Riveter) when men began to return form overseas after the war
lose their jobs; more competition; wages would go down; able to keep jobs
How were the causes of the Detroit race riots and the Los Angeles Zoot Suit Riots similar?
migration of minorities entering urban areas 'taking the white men's jobs'
How much did WWII cost? What did government do?
330 billion dollars, used war bonds and income tax
Do you think the federal government was justified in limiting individual freedom by imposing wage and price controls and by rationing during wartime? Why or why not?
would be good because it gives the government more money to use for the war and helping pay the billions they've spent
Why do you think people collected paper, scrap metal, and fats?
had a saying about making new things out of the old; contribute to the war effort
Many labor groups made 'no strike' pledges at the start of the war. What was the problem with 'wildcat strikes'?
Went on strikes out of desperation and often turned violent
DDay landing of Europe (operation overlord)
June 6, 1944, the day the Allies landed on the beaches of Normandy, France
Battle of the Bulge
in December 1944, Hitler ordered a counterattack on Allied troops in Belgium, but it crippled Germany by using up reserves and demoralizing its troops
VE Day May 1945 (victory in Europe) on May 7
The day Germany surrenders and we can now focus on the war against Japan
Harry S Truman
saw the nation through the final victory after FDR died a few weeks before the war ended
WWII strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others
Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed planes into American ships during WWII
General Douglas MacArthur
retook the Philippines and sunk Japanese ships
code name of the project that developed the atomic bomb
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
August 6th, Hiroshima was bombed by little boy; August 9th Nagasaki was bombed by Fat Man
Emperor Hirohito and VJ Day surrender
on August 15, celebration of Japan's surrender
Summarize the arguments for and against an Allied invasion of France before 1944
Stalin; wanted to because it would force Hitler to put resources and soldiers in France and away from the USSR
FDR and Churchill were against it because they didn't think they were ready
Was the DDay Landing at Normandy France on June 6, 1944 easy to accomplish? Explain.
No, because although 3 of the 5 landing spots were undefended, those 2 were accompanied by built up German bases that were firing at the soldiers from cracks in the base
How did the Battle of the Bulge get its name, and what was the ultimate outcome?
The disguised German soldiers attacked and pushed back the line to form a bulge, however the line was never broken
What was the fate of the following leaders: Mussolini, Hitler, Roosevelt, Hirohito
Mussolini was killed then hanged from a gas station to be beaten; Hitler committed suicide; FDR died of a brain hemorrhage before the war was over; Hirohito allowed to remain emperor
Describe the situation in Japan as the American forces got closer
prepared for fighting; armed civilians, built defenses, use kamikazes
What happened at Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945, and how will this event affect the war against Japan?
Tested the first nuclear bomb; the Little Boy and Fat Man were dropped ending the war
What effect do you think possession of the atomic bomb will have on the role of the US in the postwar world
will become a superpower because we were the only country with the atomic bomb which was the most powerful weapon at the time
Yalta Conference (Big Three)
strategy meeting of Churchill, Stalin, and FDR in February of 1945
a very powerful and influential nation
GATT (General Agreement on Tariff's and Trade)
aimed at lowering trade barriers
United Nations (UN)
an intergovernmental organization to promote international cooperation and peace
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
document issued by the UN to promote basic human rights and freedoms
international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war
trials in which Nazi leaders were charged with war crimes
What were the major immediate and long term effects of WWII?
immediate- Europe and Japan lay in ruins, cold war, America becomes a superpower, Soviet Union took over Eastern Europe
long term- European colonies became independent, US government guides American economy
Identify one possible postwar consequence of the Allied disagreements at Yalta and Potsdam
occupying armies dictate terms of peace; spheres of influence in Germany
How did General MacArthur influence post-war Japan
supervised the writing of a new constitution that abolished the armed forces except for purposes of defense, gave women the right to vote, enacted democratic reforms, and established the groundwork for full economic recovery
Why do you think Americans supported participation in the UN after WWII when they had opposed participation in the League of Nations after WWI?
They saw that the league of nations was ineffective without the US; we were the leading world power and wanted to prevent more conflict; attitudes changed from isolationists to wanting to be involved
Summarize the key points of the section "A New American Identity"
America becomes a superpower; African Americans gain support from more white Americans after WWII
Americans economy is out of the depression and produce supplies to help European countries recover
What was decided in Yalta, Potsdam, and Tehran?
Yalta- Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would have free election to determine their new government
Potsdam- divided Germany into spheres of influence
Tehran- opened a second front in europe
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