APUSH Unit 4 Vocab
Terms in this set (99)
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads.
Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians.
A period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
Miners rushed to Coloroado, Nevado, the Black Hills of the Dakotas, and other western states to search for silver.
A period of time in which hundreds of thousands of citizens moved west and began to farm the frontier, very much due to the Homestead Act of 1862, which offered 160 acres of free public land to any family that settled there for a period of 5 years.
Western cities that arose as a result of railroads, mineral wealth, and farming. This attracted a number of professionals and businesspersons (e.g. San Francisco, Denver, and Salt Lake City)
Federal land grants
Federal government granted land to railroad companies to help them finance new routes.
10th President: Only chosen to balance Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. In favor of state's rights and a strict interpretation of the constitution. Opposed protective tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements at national expense.
British and US jointly occupied. In the mid-1840s, became a political issue in the US, with many expansionists willing to risk war to get all of the territory, including present-day British Columbia (54 40 or fight!). In 1846, Britain and the United States agreed to extend the 49th Parallel, forming the modern border between Canada and the United States.
Fifty-four Forty or Fight
Political slogan of the Democrats in the election of 1844, which claimed fifty-four degrees, forty minutes as the boundary of the Oregon territory claimed by the United States.
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico. Failed.
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico.
Antonia Lopez de Santa Anna
Caudillo who intermittently ruled Mexico as dictator and led the destruction of the Alamo and the fight against the U.S. in 1846-1848.
Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto; later elected president of the Republic of Texas.
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
A small clash between Canadian and Maine lumberjacks, over the disputed northern Maine territory.
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million.
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.
Matthew C. Perry
Naval commander who opened up trade with Japan.
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
A series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
Abolitionist John Brown and his men killed 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas
Supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Notion that the people of a territory should determine if they want to be a slave state or a free state.
Democratic senator who proposed popular sovereignty to settle the slavery question in the territories; opposed Wilmot Proviso. Lost elections to Zachary Taylor.
(1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War, and abolished slave trade in DC.
Stephen A. Douglas
An Illinois senator who ran against Lincoln, Bell, and Breckenridge in the 1860 presidential election on a popular sovereignty platform for slavery, Douglas also authored the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and heightened the slavery debate.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.
1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories.
John C. Fremont
Republican candidate for the 1856 presidential election.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
A system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North.
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process.
Lincoln challenged Stephen Douglas to a series of 7 debates. Though Douglas won the senate seat, these debates gave Lincoln fame and helped him to later on win the presidency.
Made by Lincoln on June 16th, 1858, stating that "A house divided cannot stand," referring to the half-slave, half-free status of the US.
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property.
Sumner was an MA senator & unyielding foe of slavery. He was physically attacked by Senator Brooks of SC in retaliation for a two-day speech made denouncing the pro-slavery Missourians who had crossed into Kansas & Brook's pro-slavery uncle who supported the Missourians.
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory.
Harpers Ferry Raid
John Brown plans to start a slave uprising, so he steals weapons at Harpers Ferry and is stopped by U.S. Marines where he is captured.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
American social theorist who justified slavery by saying that black people were just children and needed to be in slavery.
Confederate States of America
A republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States.
President of the Confederate States of America.
Alexander H. Stephens
VP of Confederacy; threatened to secede with GA.
Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War.
1st real battle, Confederate victory, turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side.
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War. Created the Anaconda Plan.
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south.
Union general at beginning of civil war; general of Army of Potomac
Robert E. Lee
Appointed command of the Confederate Army in 1862 during the Civil War. Despite his skill he was forced to surrender to Ulysses S Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.
A battle in Maryland, proved to be the bloodiest single day battle in American History with over 26,000 lives lost in that single day.
Monitor vs. Merrimac
Battle that ended the era of wooden war ships. First battle between iron clad ships. Ended in a draw.
Ulysses S. Grant
American general and the eighteenth President of the United States. He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
Battle that took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
Union General Sherman's destructive March through Georgia. An early instance of "Total war", puposely targeting infrastucture and civilian property to diminish moral and undercut the confederate war effort.
April 1865, the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment.
Series of laws passed by fed gov. designed to liberate slaves in seceded states; authorized Union seizure of rebel property, and stated that all slaves who fought with Confederate military services were freed of further obligations to their masters; virtually emancipation act of all slaves in Confederacy
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862; it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free.
Abolition of slavery.
Ex parte Milligan
1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshall law.
Foreign event involving Union seizure of British ship with Confederate diplomats; tensions btw Britain & US eased w/ Lincoln's negotiations.
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln.
Massachusetts 54th Regiment
One of the first black units in the US Armed Forces. Earned place in history at Fort Wagner
Civil Rights Act of 1866
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
No person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW.
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
N.Y. political boss (did not hold a political office) who controlled the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall; Stole $200 million form New York City
Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support.
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war.
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet, 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
An agency established by Congress at the end of the Civil War to help and protect newly freed black Americans.
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves. Included not allowing blacks to marry whites, own land, and carry weapons.
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet.
A derogatory term for white Southerners who supported Reconstruction following the Civil War.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states.
The first African American to serve in the U.S. Congress.
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.