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Advantages of Hard Water
1. Provides calcium for teeth and bones.
2. Nicer taste.
3. Good for brewing and tanning.
Disadvantages of Hard Water
1. Blocks pipes, leaves scale on kettles and boilers.
2. Wastes soap.
3. Produces scum.
Boiling the water and then cooling the vapour to remove all dissolved solids and dissolved liquids
Addition of hydrated sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.10H2O. The carbonate ions react with the calcium ions in the water and removes them as insoluble calcium carbonate. Ion exchange resin Substance which swaps the ions in water which cause hardness for ions which do not cause hardness
Resins which swap the positive ions in the water (Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) for Na+ ions: Ca2++ Na2R --> CaR + 2Na+
Used to estimate the total hardness of a water sample as it forms metal complexes with alkaline earth metal ions Ca2+ and Mg2+ but not with alkali metal ions
Eriochrome Black T
Indicator used in the estimation of the total hardness of a water sample using edta
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