150 terms


organized complex, transcontinental railroad lines
1. Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, Thomas A. Scott, and Jay Gould organized
iron manufacturing
2. After the railroads, the second most important development in America's industrial advance in the late 19th century was
Bessemer process
3. industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron
Thomas A. Edison
4. inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
giving them rebates.
5. Railroads commonly encouraged large shippers to use their lines by
Public utilities
6. The first giant corporations, capitalized in the hundreds of millions of dollars, were
Steel industry
7. Andrew Carnegie dominated the
first billion dollar corporation
8. When J. P. Morgan assembled United States Steel, he formed the first
John D rockerfeller
9. By the middle of the 1880s, ________ monopolized the oil industry in the United States.
Pharmasudical industry
10. The major development in retailing during late 19th & early 20th century was
Charles Darwin
11. The theory of evolution by natural selection, which helped Americans justify their exploitation of others, was the work of
leading voices of late nineteenth-century reform
12. Henry George, Edward Bellamy, and Henry Demarest Lloyd were all late 19th century
Workers rights
13. Henry George, author of Progress and Poverty, advocated
Edward Bellamy
14. The novelist who described America evolving into an ideal socialist state was
Oliver Kelly
15.The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was founded in 1867 by
Early railroad regulation
16.The Supreme Court decision in the Wabash case
Interstate Commerce Commission.
17. The federal regulatory board, established in 1887 by Congress to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue "cease and desist" orders against railroads acting illegally, was the
Sherman Anti trust Act
18. In 1890, Congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the ________ Act.
United States v. E. C. Knigh
19. The Sherman Antitrust Act was drastically limited by the Supreme Court in
Haymarket Square riot
20. As a result of the ________, membership in the Knights of Labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
21. Established in 1886, the ________ was the prime example of "bread and butter" unionism.
Manual Training School for boys in St. Louis
22. Calvin M. Woodward was instrumental in establishing
American Protective association
23. The new nativism of the late 19th century was exemplified by the
Jacob A. Riis
24. The author of How the Other Half Lives (1890), the classic description of slum conditions in the United States, was
the development of skyscrapers
25. Louis H. Sullivan was closely associated with
Washington Gladden
26. The most influential preacher of the Social Gospel Movement was
jane Addams
27. The founder of Chicago's Hull House was
28. In 1869, ________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.
Established universities
29. In the late nineteenth century, Johns Hopkins, Jonas Clark, and John D. Rockefeller all did what?
being the first college for women
30. Vassar College holds the distinction of
Herbert Spencer
31. The most influential social Darwinist was the English thinker
John Dewey
32. The leader of what was called progressive education was
Juris Prudance
33. The emphasis of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. upon evolutionary change had a profound impact upon 20th century
Westward expansion gave the United States its character of rugged independence
34. In his frontier thesis, Frederick Jackson Turner argued that
Mark Twain
35. The author of novels such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of his age, was
whistlers mother
36. Probably the most famous painting by an American, Arrangement in Grey and Black, is the work of
37. The most influential philosopher of his time and the main exponent of pragmatism was
Chautauqua movement
38. A form of popular education which illustrated the popular desire for new information in the late 19th century was the
Hayes (1876-1880) Garfield (1881) Arthur (1881-1885) Cleveland (1885-1889, 1893-1897) Harrison (1889-1893) McKinley (1897-1901
39. The presidents during the Gilded Age
James a Garfield
40. In 1881 President ________ was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, an unbalanced office-seeker.
Civil service
41. The Pendleton Act of 1883 was a triumph for those Americans who sought ________ reform.
plessy vs furguson
42.The doctrine of "separate but equal" facilities was handed down by the Supreme Court in
booker t washington
43. The black leader identified with the "Atlanta Compromise" was
Boss tweed
44. The most notorious of all city bosses was
Jacob Coxey
45. The small-town businessman who led an "army" of the unemployed on a march to Washington, D.C. in 1894 was
William Jennings bryan
46. The dramatic "Cross of Gold" speech won the 1896 Democratic presidential nomination for
47. Theodore Roosevelt called the progressive-era journalists who investigated corruption and fraud in American business and politics
progressive mayors
48. Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones, Tom L. Johnson, and Seth Low were all
49. The first progressive president and the advocate of the "Square Deal" was
the filth of the meatpacking industry
50. Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle exposed
51. Theodore Roosevelt handpicked ________ to succeed him and carry out his policies.
Theodore Roosevelt
52. The politician who advocated a New Nationalism was
New Freedom
53. Woodrow Wilson advocated a program called the
54. In 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from
Dominican Republic
55. President Grant tried and failed to annex the
the independence of Cuba
56. The major issue in the Spanish-American War was the independence of
Uss maine
57. In February 1898 the American battleship ________ mysteriously exploded in Havana harbor.
steamed into Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
58. In the first battle of the Spanish-American War, Commodore George Dewey
59. The American politician who formed a volunteer unit, the "Rough Riders," and participated in storming San Juan Hill was
the phillipinies
60. After the Spanish-American War, heated debates raged over the imperialism of annexing
full Constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control
61. In the "insular cases" the Supreme Court ruled that
President McKinley stated his desire for the creation of an "open door" that would allow all trading.
62. The principle architect of America's "Open Door" policy was
63. The "Open Door" policy attempted to preserve the chances for American business to enter the markets of
64. At the turn of the twentieth century, the so-called Boxer Rebellion broke out in
Cuba was forced to accept an amendment to its constitution, giving the US special rights (including the right to maintain military bases such as Guantanamo), as a condition for the wthdrawal of US troops from Cuba.
65. Under the Platt Amendment,
66. The idealistic president who set out to raise the moral tone of American foreign policy by denouncing dollar diplomacy was
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
67.The Great War was precipitated by the death of
68. Many Americans were shocked and outraged when the British liner ________ was torpedoed and almost 1200 people died.
69. In February, 1917, the U.S. learned of the ________ Telegram in which Germany offered a military alliance to Mexico if the U.S. entered the war on the Allied side.
poorly prepared
70. When the United States entered the Great War, from a military point of view, the country was
War Industries Board
71. During the Great War, the government agency which had almost dictatorial powers to allocate scarce materials and fix prices was the
Harry Truman
72. The future American political leader who commanded an artillery battalion in France during the Great War was
John "black-jack" Pershing
73. The American Expeditionary Force was commanded by General
14 points
74. President Wilson's plan for a lasting peace after the Great War was known as the
members of the so-called Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference
75. Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Vittorio Orlando were
76. The peace settlement reached at the Paris conference of 1919 was called the ________ Treaty
A. Mitchell Palmer
77. In the 1919-1920 "Red Scare," radicals were ruthlessly suppressed by
The Jazz Singer
78. The first significant talking movie was
Charlie Chaplin
79. The greatest film star of his era, who won fame as a sad little tramp, was
Babe Ruth
80. The "Sultan of Swat" who transformed baseball during the 1920s with his hitting prowess was
81. The 1925 Dayton, Tennessee "Monkey Trial" dealt with
F. Scott Fitzgerald
82. The symbol of the "lost generation" and the author of The Great Gatsby was
H. L. Mencken
83. America's foremost cynic of the 1920s, who displayed witty contempt for almost everything, was
Marcus Garvey
84. The leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, whose slogan was "Back to Africa," was
Henry Ford
85. The individual most responsible for the growth of the automobile industry was
Charles Lindbergh
86. In May 1927, the first solo non-stop flight from New York to Paris was made in his Spirit of St. Louis by
return to normalcy
87.The term with which President Warren G. Harding is frequently identified is
Warren G. Harding
88. The illegal leasing of government oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, was the worst scandal involving the administration of President
Renounce war as a solution in international controversies
89. Under the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, the United States agreed to
90. The president during the stock market collapse and the start of the Great Depression was
WWI veterans who wanted their pensions
91. The "Bonus Army" which came to Washington, D.C. in 1932 consisted largely of
New Deal
92. President Franklin Roosevelt called his plan of reform and recovery the
First 100 days of the FDR administration
93. The "Hundred Days" refers to the enormous amount of legislation enacted during the
John Steinbeck
94. The novel that best portrayed the desperate plight of millions impoverished by the Depression was The Grapes of Wrath written by
Senator Huey Long
95. The most formidable of the extremists opposing Roosevelt and leader of the "Share-Our-Wealth" movement was
Father Coughlin
96. The popular "Radio Priest" whose program criticized Roosevelt and came to resemble fascism, was
Fireside Chats
97. Roosevelt communicated directly and effectively with the public through
98. In September 1939 Britain and France declared war after Germany invaded
Lend Lease
99. In early 1941, FDR proposed aiding the financially exhausted British under the ________ Act.
four freedoms
100. FDR spoke for the hopes of many for a better post-war world when he expressed his goal of
Pearl Harbor
101. The United States declared war on Japan after the surprise attack on December 7, 1941 on
Office of War Mobilization
102. The World War II board which exercised complete control over domestic prices and wages was the
equal opportunities for black workers in defense plants.
103. Prior to Pearl Harbor, A. Philip Randolph threatened to organize a march on Washington, D.C. to demand
104. Over 100,000 ________ were relocated and interned during World War II
105. On D-Day, June 6, 1944, the Allies invaded
Douglas Macarthur
106. The brilliant and egocentric commander of American land forces in the Pacific was
Island Hopping
107. The American strategy in the Pacific to conquer only strategic islands was called
Harry S. Truman
108. When President Roosevelt died in April 1945, he was succeeded by
Atomic Bomb
109. During the early 1940s, the Manhattan Project was established to create the
Yalta Conference
110. At the ________ conference Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to Soviet annexation of large sections of eastern Poland.
veterans subsidies for education or opening a small business
111. The 1944 GI Bill of Rights gave
Taft-Hartley Act
112. The ________ Act of 1947 authorized the president to seek court injunctions to prevent strikes that endangered the national interest.
George Kennan
113. The diplomat whose article "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" shaped America's containment policy was
Winston Churchill
114. The Soviet Union's aggressive policies after World War II, especially in Eastern Europe, were called extending the "Iron Curtain" by
support Greece and Turkey against the Soviet communists
115. The Truman Doctrine was created to
new confidence to Western Europe
116. The Marshall Plan provided
Fair Deal
117. Harry Truman called his national policies and programs the
off Allied Surface access to Berlin
118. In June 1948, the Soviet Union challenged the policies of the Allies in Western Europe by closing
Harry Truman
119. The winner of the 1948 presidential contest, one of the most stunning upsets in modern politics, was
betraying atomic secrets to the soviets
120. In the 1950s, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted and executed for
Joseph McCarthy
121. The Wisconsin Senator identified with wild charges about communists in government was
Douglas Macarthur
122. During the Korean War, Truman removed General ________ from his command for insubordination.
John Foster Dulles
123. Eisenhower's Secretary of State who advocated emphasizing massive retaliation with nuclear weapons rather than containment with conventional forces was
Fidel Castro
124. The successful Cuban revolution of January 1959 was led by
Brown vs. Board of Education
125. The landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision which ruled that segregated "educational facilities [in public schools] are inherently unequal" and unconstitutional, was
Little Rock, Arkansas
126. In 1957, President Eisenhower sent troops to protect black high school students in
helped Kennedy win the presidency
127. The closely watched series of television debates between candidates John Kennedy and Richard Nixon in 1960 probably
Naval Blockade of Cuba
128. During the Cuban missile crisis, President Kennedy ordered a
Martin Luther King Jr.
129. The leader of the Southern
State of the Union Address
130. The Federal Government and President Johnson declared "war" on poverty during the
Gulf of Tonkin
131. In the ________ Resolution of 1964, Congress gave President Johnson a blank check for the war in Vietnam.
Bobby Kennedy
132. In 1968 ________ was assassinated just after he won the Democratic primary in California.
Henry Kissinger
133. Richard Nixon relied heavily on the judgments of his National Security Adviser
134. Nixon's new policy of trying to relax tensions with the Chinese and the Soviets was called
Communist China
135. In February 1972, Nixon dramatically reversed previous American policy by visiting and establishing relations with
Gerald Ford
136. When Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned because of charges of income tax evasion in 1973, he was replaced by
Amendment 8
137. Which amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment?
Amendment 2
138. Which amendment guarantees citizens the right to bear arms?
Amendment 7
139. Which amendment guarantees citizens the right to a civil jury trial for amounts 20 dollars and more?
Amendment 6
140. Police must inform suspects of their basic rights (right to remain silent, anything you say can/ will be used against you in a court of law) according what amendment
Ammendment 10
141. Any powers not given to the national government are reserved for the states or the people according to what Amendment?
Amendment 3
142. What amendment limits the power of the government to house soldiers in private homes?
Amendment 13
143. Which amendment outlawed slavery in the United States?
Amendment 25
144. Which amendment lowered the voting age to 18 years of age?
Amendment 18
145. What amendment established Prohibition?
Amendment 19
146. What amendment provided for woman's suffrage?
Amendment 21
147. What amendment repealed Prohibition?
Amendment 16
148. What amendment established Federal income tax?
Amendment 20
149. What amendment provides for presidential succession?
Amendment 17
150. Which amendment provided for the direct election of Senators?