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first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture

fertile cresent

A large arc of rich, or fertile, farmland


Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets


a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader


embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy


pictures that stand for words or ideas


People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.


These people conquered the fertile crescent in about 1700 B.C.


Huge stone tombs with four triangle-shaped walls that met in a point on top

nile river

The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea


A group of Indo-European speakers who occupied Anatolia from 2000BC


Ethnic group that settled in what is now Iran. They were rivals for control of Mesopotamia with the Greeks, and later the Arabs.


the chief city of ancient Mesopotamia and capitol of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia


a form of writing using signs and symbols


An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.


people with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food,


a way of supplying water to an area of land

division of labor

separation of races, some blacks couldn't have certain good jobs


tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times

red sea

a long arm of the Indian Ocean between northeast Africa and Arabia


all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing


the time during the development of human culture before the appearance of the written word


humans and other creatures that walk upright

rosetta stone

an inscription of a black basalt stone


an important East African center of trade

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