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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. casual-comparative studies
  2. correlational research design
  3. meta-analysis
  4. mortality:
  5. What are the 4 ways to minimize threats to validity?
  1. a 1. Standardize the conditions in which the study occurs.
    2. Know the characteristics of the participants in the study
    3. Know the details of the study, such as where, when, and the extraneous events that may occur
    4. Plan and chose a suitable design
  2. b a statistical procedure for examining the results of several research studies on the same topic and determining the congruence and divergence of outcome data
  3. c participant matching and omission
  4. d observe and describe some current condition; but, rather than introduce treatments, researchers look to the past to try to identify possible cause
  5. e used to investigate the relationship among two or more variables without attempting to manipulate them

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. researchers manipulate variables or introduce a treatment to one participant or group over time and intently study effects
  2. can be used to make cause-effect determinations
  3. random selection, random assignment
  4. does not use random assignment as a means of control
  5. consistency and reliability

5 True/False questions

  1. content-related evidenceincludes a variety of different types of evidence supporting the characteristic being measured. Three common ways to measure construct-related validity include using a clearly defined variable, hypotheses based on theory to explain the variable, and logical and empirically tested hypotheses.


  2. matchingcontrol group


  3. nonexperimental designcan be used to make cause-effect determinations


  4. random errorunpredictable fluctuations in instruments, participants, or conditions


  5. action-based researchdescribes the characteristics of a population by selecting a representative sample of respondents to research