5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- correlational designs
- Placebo effects
- Methods of Control:
- criterion-related evidence
- a randomization
using participants as their own controls
analysis of covariance
- b occur on those occasions on which participants in the study act according to expectations from inadvertent cues to the anticipated results of the study
- c questions are asked in person
- d look at the degree and direction of the relationship between variables
- e is used to determine validity by comparing the instrument used in the study with another instrument or form of assessment presumed to measure the same variable. Two forms of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent.
5 Multiple choice questions
- 1. Standardize the conditions in which the study occurs.
2. Know the characteristics of the participants in the study
3. Know the details of the study, such as where, when, and the extraneous events that may occur
4. Plan and chose a suitable design
- researchers manipulate variables or introduce a treatment to one participant or group over time and intently study effects
- a researcher's ability to determine whether a causal relationship exists between the independent variable and the dependent variable.
- participants are given a treatment unrelated to the real treatment
- used to survey different samples from a population whose members may change over time
5 True/False questions
mortality: → control group
nonexperimental design → used to describe participant characteristics or behaviors and do not involve the application of any treatment to participants
content-related evidence → includes a variety of different types of evidence supporting the characteristic being measured. Three common ways to measure construct-related validity include using a clearly defined variable, hypotheses based on theory to explain the variable, and logical and empirically tested hypotheses.
quasi-experimental design → does not use random assignment as a means of control
meta-analysis → the technique of equating groups on one or more variables, with the result that each member of one group has a direct counterpart in another group