5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Construct-related evidence
- statistical regression
- content-related evidence
- experimental design
- a omitting extreme scores, randomization
- b asks the question of whether the instruments and the sample accurately represent the variable under study. A researcher would ask whether the questions used in the instrument adequately assess the variable under study. To ensure content-related validity, researchers should look over the content and format of the instrument to be used
- c includes a variety of different types of evidence supporting the characteristic being measured. Three common ways to measure construct-related validity include using a clearly defined variable, hypotheses based on theory to explain the variable, and logical and empirically tested hypotheses.
- d can be used to make cause-effect determinations
- e questions are asked in person
5 Multiple choice questions
- participants are given a treatment unrelated to the real treatment
- double blind study
- includes members of a particular population who do not change over the course of the study
- look at the degree and direction of the relationship between variables
- This often occurs in single-subject experimental design or some pretest-posttest designs. This option provides high internal validity because participants serve as their own controls.
5 True/False questions
Treatment interaction effects → occur on those occasions on which participants in the study act according to expectations from inadvertent cues to the anticipated results of the study
Placebo effects → occur on those occasions on which participants in the study act according to expectations from inadvertent cues to the anticipated results of the study
external validity → a researcher's ability to determine whether a causal relationship exists between the independent variable and the dependent variable.
analysis of covariance → this tests the main and interaction effects of categorical variables on a continuous dependent variable, controlling for the effects of selected other continuous variables that covary with the dependent variable
no-treatment control group → participants receive no treatment at all