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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Selection:
  2. ecological generalizability
  3. descriptive studies
  4. Placebo effects
  5. random error
  1. a occur on those occasions on which participants in the study act according to expectations from inadvertent cues to the anticipated results of the study
  2. b random selection, random assignment
  3. c describe an existing phenomenon by using members to characterize individuals or groups
  4. d unpredictable fluctuations in instruments, participants, or conditions
  5. e the degree to which results of a study can be applied to to other settings or conditions

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. used to investigate the relationship among two or more variables without attempting to manipulate them
  2. refer to the potential for a treatment protocol to have an effect based on the characteristics of the participant rather than those of the group as a whole
  3. random selection, random assignment
  4. can be used to make cause-effect determinations
  5. participants receive no treatment at all

5 True/False questions

  1. correlational designslook at the degree and direction of the relationship between variables


  2. content-related evidenceasks the question of whether the instruments and the sample accurately represent the variable under study. A researcher would ask whether the questions used in the instrument adequately assess the variable under study. To ensure content-related validity, researchers should look over the content and format of the instrument to be used


  3. survey researchfocuses on specifying a problem and creating an action plan to address the problem


  4. statistical regressionomitting extreme scores, randomization


  5. meta-analysisthe technique of equating groups on one or more variables, with the result that each member of one group has a direct counterpart in another group