5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What are the 4 ways to minimize threats to validity?
- random assignment
- using participants as their own controls
- Hawthorne effect
- a refers to the change in performance caused by the mere presence of others watching.
- b a randomization process that is usually done after the research participants are selected to determine which participants will receive which value of the independent variable
- c This often occurs in single-subject experimental design or some pretest-posttest designs. This option provides high internal validity because participants serve as their own controls.
- d 1. Standardize the conditions in which the study occurs.
2. Know the characteristics of the participants in the study
3. Know the details of the study, such as where, when, and the extraneous events that may occur
4. Plan and chose a suitable design
- e control group
5 Multiple choice questions
- questions are asked in person
- random selection, random assignment
- includes a variety of different types of evidence supporting the characteristic being measured. Three common ways to measure construct-related validity include using a clearly defined variable, hypotheses based on theory to explain the variable, and logical and empirically tested hypotheses.
- participants are given a treatment unrelated to the real treatment
using participants as their own controls
analysis of covariance
5 True/False questions
Placebo effects → refers to the change in performance caused by the mere presence of others watching.
cohort study → used to survey different samples from a population whose members may change over time
action-based research → focuses on specifying a problem and creating an action plan to address the problem
panel study → used to survey different samples from a population whose members may change over time
external validity → a researcher's ability to determine whether a causal relationship exists between the independent variable and the dependent variable.