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Japan, the Common Market & the USSR were giving the US stiff economic competition; Developing nations, especially Third World Bloc in the UN exerted more power; A rift between Communist China & USSR required a new or at least a revised policy toward communism yet we still sought to limit communist expansion; Unstable situations existed in the Congo, the Middle East & Indochina (Vietnam); Fidel Castro's creation of a Commie state in Cuba (90 miles of coast of Florida) was troubling to US and led to JFK's greatest failure and success

Fulgencio Batista

Ran Cuba prior to 1959 and was overthrown by Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro

overthrew Batista and renounced Democracy, refusing to hold elections and began accepting Soviet Aid

Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)

created under Eisenhower in which CIA trained Cuban exiles were to invade Cuba and lead a popular revolt against Castro; JFK was wary but did approve it

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

JFK considered missile strikes, conventional bombing, or a quarantine due to photographs of long range missile silos in Cuba but chose the quarantine; traveling restrictions were lifted in 2009 but economic restrictions remain in place

Alliance for Progress

not successful, to improve US relations with 19 Latin American countries; provided 10 year social and economic improvement; peace corps

Berlin Crisis (1961)

To stop exodus of escapees from E Berlin to W Berlin, Soviets and E German forces built a 25 mile long wall; W Berlin remained free and supported by the West and NATO but the building of the wall was not challenged

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)

US, GB & USSR agreed to stop nuclear resting outside of their own borders and in the atmosphere

Involvement in Indochina (Vietnam)

JFK continued Ike's policies of aiding S Vietnam but intended to reconsider after his trip to Dallas

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