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69 terms

Western Civ Mid-Term

STUDY
PLAY
All of the following are prominent features of Greece's topography?
a. Valleys
b. Bays and harbors
c. Mountains
d. NOT extensive open plains
In general, separate early Greek communities:
Became fierce rivals fighting so often as to threaten Greek civilization itself
The chief center of Minoan Crete was:
Knossos
The following best describes the Mycenaean's:
They were a warrior people who achieved their apex between 1400 and 1200 BC
The civilization of Minoan Crete:
Enjoyed great prosperity due to extensive sea trade and commerce
The group of people who succeeded the Mycenaean's in Greece around 1100 BC were the:
Dorians
1. The period immediately following the collapse of the Mycenaean's civilization is referred to as:
The Greek Dark Age
During the migration of the Greek Dark Age, many Ionians
Crossed the Agean Sea to settle the Asia Minor
What were the chief characteristics of the Greek Dark Age?
It was a period of migrations and declining food production
Homer's Iliad points out:
The honor and courage of Greek aristocratic heroes in battle
Which of the following is true of Greece from c 750 to c. 500 B.C.
The polis evolved into the central institution in Greek life
The polis was the Greek name for:
city-state
Characteristic of the typical Greek polis:
a. It contained an agora and acropolis within its fortification

b. Each polis was autonomous from all other poleis

c. The strength of the community came through cooperation

d. NOT each polis had a population of between 90-100,000 citizens
The development of the polis had a negative impact on Greek society by:
Dividing Greece into fiercely competitive states
During the period of Greek history from 750-500BC:
a. The polis developed as the chief political institution

b. Trade and colonization increased greatly
The hoplite phalanx was:
A new Greek military organization of heavily armed infantry
The rise of tyrants in the poleis in the seventh and sixth centuries BC
Often encouraged the economic and cultural progress of the cities
Tyranny in the Greek polis arose as:
A consequence of aristocratic power and a widening gulf between the rich and the poor
In Sparta:
Life resembled that of a military camp
The Lycurgan reforms resulted in:
The establishment of a permanent military state in Sparta
By the sixth century B.C., to balance the power of king and Council of Elders Spartan political reformers created the:
Ephors
Spartan helots:
a. Farmed the land as sharecroppers

b. Had war declared on them every year
For the Greeks, the term arête described:
The excellence of heroes willing to fight in defense of honor
The early history of Athenian politics is marked by:
The consistent desire of local aristocrats to avoid tyranny
Athenian leaders are:
a. Themistocles developed a navy

b. Cleisthenes created the ten tribes and Council of 500

c. Sonon-sole archon and political reformer

d. NOT Pisistratus-remolded the entire Athenian constitution while utterly neglecting his merchant supporters
Typical of Greek culture in the archaic age was:
Lyric poetry as found in the works of Sappho
Hesiod's famous poem about the pleasures of ordinary work is titled:
Works and Days
The political figure chiefly associated with the establishment of Athenian democratic institutions:
Cleisthenes
The poetry of Sappho reflected:
A woman's homosexual and heterosexual feelings in the world dominated by males
The immediate cause of the Persian Wars was:
A revolt of the Ionian Greek colonies in Asia Minor
At the Battle of Marathon, the Greeks:
The capture of the Persian queen by Aristagoras of Miletus
At the Battle of Thermopylae:
The Spartans fought a noble holding action to the last man
What best describes the Delian League:
An alliance of city-states led by Athens against Persia
During the Age of Pericles:
Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system
Athenian government under Pericles:
Involved new councils and magistracies enabling ordinary citizens to hold public office
The Peloponnesian War resulted in:
The defeat of Athens and the collapse of its empire
One of the chief causes of the Peloponnesian War was:
Sparta's fear of the power of Athens and its maritime empire
The Greek historian Thucydides differed from Herodotus in that the former:
Was unconcerned with spiritual forces as the factor in history
The Greek dramatist who was a realist and known for his portrayal of real life situations was:
Euripides
Greek comedy:
Was used to express political views as evidence by Aristophanes
The Greek Parthenon:
Is considered the greatest example of classical Greek temple architecture
Greek Architecture:
Was dominated by the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columnar styles
Early Greek philosophy attempted to:
Explain the universe on the basis of unifying principles
The Sophists:
Were professional teachers who seemingly questioned the traditional values of their societies
Socrates was condemned to death for:
Corrupting the youth of Athens
"The unexamined life is not worth living" is a cornerstone of the philosophy of:
Socrates
The Republic depicted:
Plato's idea of the ideal government and society
Greek religion:
a. It was polytheistic

b. It involved ritual and sacrifice

c. Festivities were held to honor the gods

d. NOT myths served no particular social function
The social situation of Greek women:
Women were kept under strict control, cut off from formal education, and were always assigned a male guardian
In classical Athens, male homosexuality:
Was practiced and tolerated in part as a means by which mature men instructed young male about the masculine world of politics and patronage
Paleolithic
consisted of Nomads that collected their food such as berries, while they also consumed and hunted various animals like the bison.
Osiris
egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife; also one of the river and land deities; killed by is evil brother Seth who cut his body into 14 parts and tossed them into Nile, his wife, Isis, found his body and with the help of other gods restored him to life; by identifying with him one could hope to gain new life, just as Osiris had done
Moses
led the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt
David
one of Saul's lieutenants who reunited the Israelites, defeated the Philistines, and established control over Canaan; also defeated the Moabites
Babylon
sacked in 689 B.C.; built upon the Euphrates; "Gateway to God"; in Mesopotamia
Proverbs
book in the Hebrew Bible that provides a picture of what Hebrews considered a perfect wife
Amos
prophet that made clear that God would punish the Israelites for their sins
Polis
aka city-state; The polis encompassed a town or city and its surrounding countryside. It served as the focus point where its citizens could take park in political, social, and religious activities It also featured as a meeting point and place of refuge when under attack. It later became known as the religious center where citizens where temples and public monuments were placed.
Marathon
important battle (490 B.C.) that consisted of a struggle between the Greeks and the Persians; defeat fo the Persians gave Athenian confidence a tremendous boost
Aristotle
a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great; did not except Plato's theory of ideal Forms
Sophist
group of professional teachers who seemingly questioned the traditional values of their societies; stressed the importance of rhetoric in winning debates; no absolute right or wrong
Pericles
(450 B.C) aristocrat who began to play an important political role; Age of Pericles is when the Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system; allowed ordinary citizens to participate in public affairs
Acropolis
central meeting point on a hill; served as a place of refuge when under attach; later came to be the religious center where temples and public monuments were erected; an ancient citadel located on a high rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and containing the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon (dedicated to Athenia, the patron goddess of the city)
Because its rivers were unpredictable, farming in Mesopotamia was possible only by constructing ___________ and _________ __________
irrigation & drainage ditches
Mesopotamian city-states may firs have been ruled by _______ and later ruled by ________
priests & kings
Solomon's most famous contribution to Hebrew religion was construction of the ________ in Jerusalem, where the ____ of the ___________ was kept.
Temple , Ark, and Covenant
The Hebrew's were twice held in bondage, first in ______, later in _______. They were freed from the latter by the Persian King _______.
Egypt, Babylon, and Cyrus
The Hebrew's believed their deity, whose name was _________, had made formal ________ with them, under which they were to obey his _____.
Yahweh, covenant, and law
Homor's Iliad chronicles the siege of _____ and how the anger of ________ led to social chaos and military disaster.
Troy and Achilles