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Ch 28 Questions- Sammy Eline

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In what specific ways did the ideals of the Enlightenment challenge long-held assumptions about government and social order?
The enlightenment opened many minds up to the idea that government should be separate from the church and that both should be limited in the lives of citizens.
Challenged traditional order
church
absolute monarchy
role of government
popular sovereignty
john locke: natural rights
Rousseau( the social contract) Voltaire(religious tolerance), Montesquieu(the spirit of laws)
What specific issues and concerns led the British colonies of North America to revolt against their sovereign?
Overt taxation, considered unfair and authority disputes caused the North American colonist to revolt against the British. The result was the creation of the United States of America. Other colonies rebelled for similar reasons and created countries such as Mexico for instance.
What were the principal causes of the French revolution of 1789? Were these concerns addressed by the revolution?
In 1789 , in the hope of obtaining funds ,Louis XVI summoned the Estates General (Parliament) for the first time since 1614 . The Third Estate (Middle Classes) who belonged to neither of the two privileged orders of clergy and nobles seized their chance to air their grievances . Discontent flared into open rebellion , Starving Parisians stormed the Bastille .
France , due to bad weather had, had a disastrous grain harvest , the price of flour and bread rose beyond the means of the lower classes .
The Third Estate voted itself into a National Assembly , which abolished the worst aspects of feudalism and curtailed the power of the church . However , extreme factions, such as the Jacobin's , led by Robespierre took over .
Conventional wisdom holds that Napoleon ended the revolution when he proclaimed himself emperor in 1802. In what ways did he continue the ideals of the revolution? In what ways did he reverse the revolution?
In some ways, Napoleon continued the ideals of the revolution because he overthrew the Directory after the Directory had overthrown the king (King Louis XVI). He also wrote a new constitution, which replaced that which ha been developed by the Directory a few years earlier. However, in some respects he reversed the revolution because he restored relative stability after the very destructive and bloody Terror in 1793 and 1794.
What events led to the slave revolt of Saint-Domingue (Haiti)? Why was this rebellion successful when so many other slave revolts failed?
The French Revolution occupied France which opened up an opportunity for the Haitian revolt. This was one reason for its success. Another factor that made it successful was that the majority of the Haitian population was slaves (about 90%). Also, the troops that were sent to put down the revolt were victims of yellow fever, and the Haitians were capable fighters and very persistent.
Describe the basic social structure of Latin American society in 1800. What factors led to the revolutions that followed?
Latin American social structure was based on ethnicity under imperial rule in which Europeans were at the top, followed by Creoles (American-born Spaniards), mulattoes (European-African) mestizos (European-American), and natives.
What was the impact of the ideals of the Enlightenment and the events of the revolutionary era on the status of women? Give some specific examples.
The Enlightenment hosted new ideas about political and social roles so that women could come out of their subordinate roles. Great tool to highlight the difference between the high ideals of the Enlightenment and the realities in the way women were treated under the law. Married women weren't allowed to hold property in their own name, and enslaved men were freed and allowed to vote decades before women were granted the vote.
Compare the unification of Italy with the unification of Germany.
Italian unification was made possible by Victor Emmanuel II (King of Sardinia, 1849), and his prime minister, Count Camillo Cavour. They used nationalism to gain the support of the people and allied their country with European powers that could help them remove Austrian influence from all parts of Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi, "another Italian nationalist, raised a volunteer army and in 1860 drove Spain from the kingdom of Two Siciles." In Prussia, William I appointed Otto von Bismarck as prime minister, and Bismarck used nationalism to fight Austria and gain German territories. Then he fought the Franco-Prussian war which brought the German Catholic regions under Prussian control
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