Chapter 3

The effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states.
block grants
Money from the national government that states can spend with broad guidelines determined by Washington.
"necessary and proper" clause
Section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the Constitution
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution
duel federalism
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate
police power
State power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals
Process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
Procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
Procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
Money given by the national government to the states
categorical grants
Federal grants fro specific purposes, such as building an airport
revenue sharing
Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states
conditions of aid
Terms set by the national government that the states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal funds