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22 terms

Genetics

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Mitosis
Cell division, resulting in two cells that each have the diploid number of chromosomes and are just like the original cell.
Meiosis
The process a cell's nucleus must go through to make sex cells (gametes) with half the number of chromosomes present compared to the original cell.
Chromosome
A threadlike strand of DNA found in the nucleus of the cell that carries genes and transmits hereditary information.
Gene
The basic unit of inheritance on a chromosome,which determine the structure and function of all components of the body.
Allele
One of the variant forms of a gene at a particular location, on a chromosome.
Codon
A three nucleotide sequence on a stand of mRNA that gets translated into a specific amino acid forming a protein.
Genome
The complete genetic information of an organism.
Genotype
The combination of genes/alleles of an organism represented by letters.
Phenotype
The appearance or expression in an organism due to its combination of alleles.
Sexual
Requiring two gametes to reproduce
Asexual
Reproduction without a partner
Gamete
A sex cell
Homozygous
Having identical alleles for a single trait.
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a single trait.
Hybrid
An organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock
Cloning
Production of a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell
Watson and Crick
Two of the scientists responsible for the determination of the double helix shape of DNA
Mendel
Austrian monk known as the "father of genetics" for his work with pea plants
Biotechnology
Techniques used by scientists to modify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or the genetic material of a micro-organism plant or animal in order to achieve a desired trait that is of benefit to humans
DNA Fingerprinting
A process which uses fragments of DNA to identify the unique genetic makeup of an individual.
Diploid
Number of chromosomes in most cells except the gametes.
Haploid
Having only half the normal complement of genes