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200 terms

PSYCHOLOGY FINAL

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(Chapter 2) If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ___ into your bloodstreem
epinephrine
The parasympathetic nervous system ____ digestion and ____ heartbeat
accelerates; decelerates
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
frontal
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the:
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the:
sympathetic nervous system
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty:
playing the guitar
If a picture of a comb is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split brain patient, she should be able to:
use her left hand to draw the picture of the comb
Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the motor cortex?
face
Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex
thalamus
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter:
dopamine
EEG is to CT Scan as:
amplified recording of brain waves is to x-ray photography
The sequence of brain regions from oldest to newest is:
brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by:
irritability
The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be ___ by heroin use and ___ by acupuncture
decreased; increased
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to:
depression
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as:
acetylcholine
The experience of auditory hallucinations by people with schizophrenia is most closely linked with the activation of areas in their:
temporal lobes
Reuptake refers to the:
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
After Paul's serious snow-skiing accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Wernicke's area. Because of the damage, Paul is most likely to experience difficulty in:
understanding what others are saying
In order to identify which of Lucy's brain areas was msot active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a:
PET Scan
Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
parietal
The occipital lobes are to ___ as the temporal lobes are to ___
seeing; hearing
The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the:
medulla
Olds and Milner located "pleasure centers" in the brain structure known as the:
sensory cortex
Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories?
Hippocampus
(Chapter 5&6) As an airplane descended for landing, the pilot saw several beautiful islands that appeared to float in a vast expanse of blue ocean water. In this instance, the ocean is a:
ground
During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Dahl could hardly ever detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Dahl's
absolute threshold
The visual cliff is a lab device for testing ___ in infants:
depth perception
Research with distorting goggles best supports the view of human perception advanced by
Locke
After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
sensory adaptation
Which theory would suggest that watching a horrer movie late at night could lower your absolute threshold for sound as you subsequently tried to fall asleep?
signal detection theory
Which of the following is a binocular cue of perception of distance
convergence
News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and coca-cola involved false claims regarding:
subliminal stimulation
John Locke is to Immanuel Kant as ___ is to ___
nature; nurture
A psychophysicist would be most directly concerned with
the relation between the wavelength of light and experience of color
If an adult who was blind from birth gains the ability to see, that person would have the greatest difficulty visually distinguishing
circles from squares
The sequentially flashing Christmas tree lights appeared to generate pulsating waves of motion. This best illustrates
the phi phenomenon
Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as:
farther away
The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the
absolute threshold
The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is
interposition
OJay claims that his special psychic powers enable him to perceive exactly where the body of a recent murder victim is buried. OJay is claiming to possess the power of
clairvoyance
The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as
Weber's law
The perceptual tendency to fill gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called
closure
Sensation is to ___ as perception is to ___
detection; interpretation
Psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve difficult crimes have demonstrated the value of
all of the above
When the soundtract for the movie "Woodstock" is played in the back of a classroom, students tend to perceive the sound as originating from the picture screen in the front of the room. This best illustrates
visual capture
When listening to the end of the song "Strawberry Fields Forever", people often perceive a voice declaring "I buried Paul" only if specifically forewarned what to listen for. This best illustrates the dangers of
Perceptual set
The news headline read "Local Prostitutes Appeal to City Mayor." Most readers immediately recognized that this was not a reference to the mayor's sexual desires. This best illustrates the value of
Perceptual set
Gestalt psychologists emphasize that
the whole is more than the sum of its parts
Holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can create the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best illustrates the effect of
retinal disparity
(Chapter 3) A behavior geneticise would mostly be interested in studying hereditary influences on
personality traits
Maria cooks because she learned that this was expected of women. This illustrates importance of
gender roles
Classifying toys as masculine and feminine illustrates the process of
gender typing
Evolutionary psychology would suggest that parents are genetically to have strongest grief over the death of
adolescent sons
genes are to chromosomes as ___ are to ___
words; books
Genes are to perpetuation of individuals as __ are to the perpetuation of cultures
memes
Elton's daughter fights and he says "good girls don't fight" and his son fights and he says "did you win". Elton's gender typing reactions would be of interest to
social learning theorists
Studies of identical twins that have been reared apart highlight the importance of ___ in personality development
genetic predispositions
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes to casual sex to the fact that men have ___ than do women
greater reproductive potential
We're likely to ___ personality similarities among children in the same family and likely to ___ personality similarities between parents and children
overestimate; overestimate
Frans avoids talking with food in his mouth because others think it is rude. This best illustrates
norms
Genetic influences on personality traits are highlighted by comparing ___ with ____
identical twins reared together; fraternal twins reared together
Carl and Shirley are both mentally retarded because their mothers drank while they were pregnant. This shows the influence of
prenatal enviornment
According to gender schema theory, children become gender typed because
we percieve to much of reality in terms of masculine and feminine
Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to predict
children are not likely to be abused by their biological parents
At three months, Kevin is removed from the home of his abusive biological parents and placed in a house with good adoptive parents. As kevin matures he'll probably develop
higher levels of intelligence than his biological father
female children exposed to testosteron during prenatal development are called tomboys. These children
may be treated like boys because they look more masculine
Babies with intense and highly reactive temperament are
irritable and unpredictable
In which countries do people genereally prefer to maintain the largest area of personal space
England
Boys outnumber girls at ___ levels of reading and at ____ levels of math
low, high
Heredability of specific traits will be greatest among genetically ____ individuals who have been raised in ____ enviornments
dissimilar; similar
Children from impoverished enviornments with stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are most likely to
prevent degeneration of activated connections between neurons
Because Maila is the first girl in her fourth grade class to sexually mature, she is teased. Maila's social isolation and embarassment are from
nature and nurture
Enviornmental influences on personality traits are highlighted by comparing ____ and ____
identical twins reared together; identical twins reared apart
adopted children raised in the same family aren't likely to have similar personalities so we should be cautious about attributing personality to
parental influences
(Chapter 7) At 1:00 AM, Tyler gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk, an EEG brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of
Delta waves
When cocaine is snorted, it produces a rush of euphoria by
blocking the reuptake of dopamine
Night terrors
usually occur in the first few hours of sleep
The belief that death involves the liberation of the soul from a bodily prison illustrates
dualism
the best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that
most mammals experience REM rebound
Jack remembered a recent dream in which his girlfriend suddenly grabbed the wheel of his speeding car which symbolized saving the couple from sexual disaster. Freud would say he is attempting to reveal the ___ of his dream
latent content
REM sleep is ____ by alcohol and ____ by sleeping pills
inhibited; inhibited
Orne and Evans discovered that unhypnotized subjects performed the same dangerous acts as hypnotize subjects. Hypnosis involves
conscience role playing
Near death experiences are
quite similar to drug induced hallucinogenic experiences
People can be hypnotically induced to
report significant relief of ice water
During full nights of sleep you spend more time in ___ sleep than ___ sleep
REM, Stage 4
Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Zachary experienced a diminished appetite, an increased pulse rate, dialated pupils, and feelings of self-confidence and euphoria. Zach experienced the effects of
cocaine
As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man dissappeared. Freud would say this represents the ___ content of her dream
manifest
Which of the following is a psychoactive drug
LSD
Compared to young women, young men are ___ likely to report dreams of sex and are ___ likely to dream about members of the same sex
more; More
Compared to their white counterparts, black have ___ rates of alcohol use and ___ rates of cocaine use
lower; lower
the theory that dreams help to solidify our memories of daytime experiences is supported by the finding that
people deprived of REM sleep remember less of certain pre-sleep information than other stages
28 year old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him and asks him to mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of
age regression
Bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia is
drink wine 15 minutes before bed
Amphetimines ___ appetite and ___ self-confidence
decrease; increase
Joan's dentist used hypnosis when he filled a cavity. He didn't feel any pain but raised hand if there was pain. Hynosis involves
dissociation
Which of the following has been presented as evidence that alcoholism is genetically influenced
children whose parents abuse alcohol have high tolerance
Which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen
ecstacy
After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has 5-6 drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. This will affect his ability to remember
the next day the names of people at the bar and what he said while drinking
Francois was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance footwork and endurance. What were they using?
amphetimines
(chapter 4) Sia vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Sia's inconsistancy illustrates
role confusion
Avoiding physical punishment is to ___ morality as respecting laws of society is to ___ morality
preconventional; conventional
Young Jeezy disapproves of stealing jelly beans from his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank him if he does. Jeezy best represents a ___ morality
preconventional
Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation
were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity
Men are typically ___ socially independent and ___ interested in religion than women
more; less
Rumor has it that Adele is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Adele has just
developed a sense of object permanence
Ten-Year-Old Nicki is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Nicki is likely to be
the object of some teasing
A student who does not cheat on tests because he does not want to violate classroom rules is in Kohlberg's ___ stagew
conventional
Adults are ___ likely to divorced in their early forties than in their early twenties. They are___ likely to commit suicide in their early forties than in their early seventies
less; less
Primary sex characteristics are to ___ as secondary sex characteristitcs are to ___
female ovaries; deepend male voice
In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with an insecure maternal attachment are most likely to
show indifference to their mother's return after a brief absence
authoritarian parents demonstrate ___ levels of parental control and ___ levels of parental responsiveness
high; low
Research on the elderly has shown that
they become increasingly prone to car accidents
According to Erikson, the elderly can most effectively cope with the prospect of thier own death if they have achieved a sense of
integrity
A person who thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because one might get punished for doing so is demonstrating Kohlberg's ___ stage of morality
preconventional
Flo is a 70-year-old retired entertainer. In contrast to when he was 20, he now probably
is less susceptible to catching colds
In surveying women who either had or had not yet experienced menopause, researchers have discovered that
postmenopausal women frequently agree that after menopause women feel better than they have for years
On which of the following tasks are 55-year-old adults most likeloy to perform just as effectively as they could 30 years earlier?
writing a story
"if you're really concerned about the rights and dignity of women," Tyga asked his older brother, "how can you justify buying pornographic magazines?" Tyga's question indicates that he is in the ___ stage of development
formal operational
Kanye and Kim's third and last child is leaving home for college next year. Their empty nest is likely to be a ____ place
happy
Gotye has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Gotye lacks
identity
Mrs. Jonas cut Nick's hot dog into eight pieces and Kevin's into six pieces. Kevin cried because he felt he wasn't getting as much hot dog as Nick. Piaget would say that Kevin doesn't understand the principle of
conservation
Acording to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ___ stage is to the ___ stage
preoperational; concrete operational
The first time that 4-year-old Wiz saw his older brother play a flute, he thought it was simply a large whistle. Wiz's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of
assimilation
Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ___ in life and adult independence begins ___ in life
earlier; later
(chapter 8) Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ____ reinforcer
negative
What is the greatest danger associated with using small bribes to entice children to read good books?
the overjustification effect
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ____ schedule of reinforcement
fixed-ratio
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
discrimination
2-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of
generalization
The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on TV best illustrates the importance of
modeling
In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experience served to illustrate the importance of
observational learning
Which of the following is an unconditioned response
sweating in hot weather
Money is to food as ___ is to ___
secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer
BF Skinners work elaborated what EL Thorndike had called
the law of effect
Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?
inserting coins in a slot machine
The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ___ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulant is to ___
punishment; reinforcement
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of roses after roses are presented with electric shock. In this fictional example, the presentation of the roses is the
conditioned stimulus
The lowest rates of operant responding are associated with the ___ schedule of reinforcement
variable-ratio
For the most rapid acquisition of CR, the CS should be presented ____ the UCS
shortly before
Pavlolov noticed that dogs began sallivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight fo this person was a
conditioned stimulus
A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of a lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a
CS
After he was spanked on several occasions by his mother for spilling milk, Colin developed a strong fear of his mother. In this case, spanking is a ___ for Colins fear
Unconditioned stimulus
Jacinda has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ___ reinforcer
negetive
Janna's behavior is more strongly influenced by the momentary thrill of unprotected sex than by the prospect of an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease. This best illustrates the impact of
immediate reinforcement
The loss of intrinsic motivation for engaging in an activity is a central characteristic of
the overjustification effect
Who introduced the term behaviorism?
Watson
A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly ___ an appropriate ___
before; UCS
Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was presented with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the
unconditioned stimulus
Latent learning can occur in the absence of
reinforcement
(chapter 9) Explicit memory is to long-term memory as iconic memory is to ____ memory
sensory
after reading report suggesting drunk driving happened, people who saw the accident remembered the driver traveling faster than in actuality. This is an example of
self-reference effect
Superior memory for country hip hop lyrics is
acoustic encoding
We cant distinguish between true and fasle memories because
false memories are as durable as true ones
Learning without having concious memory of learning it suggests distinguishing between
explicit and implicit memory
Students who restudy have long-rerm retention illustrating
the spacing effect
to remember information in psychology, Susan related it to her own experiences, facilitating
semantic encoding
After going to group therapy for sexual abuse, Kevin remembered details of others experiences as his own. This illustrates
source amnesia
Negative associations primed with distressing emotions illustrate
mood-congruent memory
understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for
encoding
after studying, Sierra Mountain, Chris can't remember the Himalayan landscape from that morning. This illustrates
retroactive interference
The combination of individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of
chunking
The concious repitition of information in order to maintain it in memory is called
rehearsal
When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her own mother's drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates
the misinformation effect
For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ___ memory
echoic
Kevin so easily remembered his new girlfriend's telephone number that he found it difficult to recall his old girlfriend's number. Kevin's difficulty best illustrates
retroactive interference
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called ___ memory
iconic
An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?
recognition
With respect to the controversy regarding reports of repressed memories of sexual abuse, statements by major psychological and psychiatric associations suggest that
Adult memories of experiences happening before age 3 are unreliable
The inability to remember how Lincoln's head appears on a penny is most likely due to a failure in
encoding
The accuracy of the flashbulb memories of those who were eyewitnesses to the first bombings of Baghdad during the 2003 war in Iraq best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by
the body's release of stress hormones
A retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ___ memory
implicit
("The Mind" video: Life Without Memory: The Case of Clive Wearing) This module highlights the tragic experience of a renowned musician, Clive Wearing. The destruction of Cilve's ___ is primarily responsible for his severe memory impairment
hippocampus
At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three and the last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates
the serial position effect
Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea's recall provides an example of
priming
(Chapter 1) Experimentation is more useful than correlational measures for testing the claim that
peoples friendliness and feelings of happiness are increased by consumption of alcohol
In an experimental study of the extent to which sexual arousal is stimulated by laughter, sexual arousal would be the
dependent variable
In order to study the effects of noise on worker productivity, researchers have one group in a noisy room and group two in a quiet room. Differences in productivity result in different noise levels. This would be equal to use if there was
random assignment
The King James Version of the Bible has coincidences. This shows the danger of
percieving order in coincidental events
Half of the students at Quincy college have blue eyes, which of the following events is most probable?
In a quincy college class consisting of 15 students, 12 or more have blue eyes
professor Branyon noticed that the distibution of students scores on his last biology test had an extremely small standard deviation. This idicates that the
students scores tended to be very similar to one another
A correlation between self-esteem and annual income of -.75 would indicate that
higher elvels of annual income are associated with lower levels of self esteem
In order to study the development of relationships, Dr. Mallaro carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal behaviors among men and women in singles bars. Which research method did Dr. Mallaro employ?
naturalistic observation
For which of the following distributions of scores would the median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean?
6,18,4,5,2
Matt cites his cousin Heather's many car accidents as evidence that women are worse drivers than men. He overlooks the fact that his wife and three daughters have had far fewer car accidents than he and his two sons. Matt's prejudicial conclusion about women's driving skills best illustrates the effects of
confirmation bias
According to Professor Fancook, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. Her idea is an example of
a theory
A researcher would be most likely to discover a negative correlation between
self-esteem and depression
Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Mirelle was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Mirelle's experience best illustrates
overconfidence
If psychologists discovered that people who live at the poverty level have more aggressive children than do wealthy people, this would indicate that
people's economic status and aggressiveness of their children are negatively correlated
Hypotheses are best described as
predictions
In order to gain further understanding of how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Francis extensively and carefully observed and questioned two stroke victims. Which research method did Dr. Fancis employ?
the case study
Whether informed that research has supported the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self-esteem or informed that the esteem-enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research, most people would consider the findings to be common sense. This best illustrates the power of
the hindsight bias
According to Professor Blake, his experimental research demonstrates that eating an apple every day improves children's reading skills. How might he best offer further support for the reliability of this finding?
replication
In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug, research participants who receive a placebo are participating in the ___ condition
control
Alex has volunteered to participate in an experiment evaluating the effectiveness of asiprin. Neither he nor the experimenters know whether or not the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of
the double-blind procedure
Correlation is to ___ as experimentation is to ___
prediction; explanation
Seven members of a girls' club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of raffle tickets: $5, $9, $4, $11, $6, $4 and $3. In this distribution of earnings, the median is ___ the mean and ___ the mode
less than; greater than
Random sampling is to ___ as random assignment is to ___
surveys; experiments
In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Eitel randomly selected 800 of these students to complete an attitude questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State University are considered to be a
population
Hannah who is opposed to legalized marijuana, was extremely surprised to learn that the results of a survey indicated that majority of the population favored legalizing marijuana. Hannah's surprise best illustrates the power of
the false consensus effect