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Terms in this set (92)
Refers to the length of sounds and silences in music and includes the aspects of beat, rhythm, meter, tempo pulse rates and absence of pulse.
The underlying pulse in music.
Patterns of long and short sounds and silences found in music.
The speed of the beat and music in general.
The grouping of beats in combinations of 2,3,4,5,6,7, and so on.
Gives music a drive and clear sense of momentum. Songs with a strong beat are easy for audiences to dance to, clap along to or tap their feet to.
Similar to a strong beat, although more specific. It is a strong beat that can be described according to where the beat falls in the measure.
A beat that does not provide the music with as much drive or momentum compared to a definite or strong beat. Can involve a slight emphasis on the first beat of every bar to give the listener a sense of structure.
Is always considered a weak beat, although it can be heard in passages where there is free rhythm. Free rhythmic passages are sometimes heard in the introduction to a song.
The first beat of a measure in music. The strongest in any meter.
An unaccented beat or beats that occur before the first beat of a measure (generally the last beat of a measure).
The first and third beats in a bar of 4/4 time, or the strong beats in a particular time signature.
Beats that are not particularly strong or are weak in a specific time signature.
A syncopated rhythm where accentuation occurs on the off beats or weak beats in a measure. In a four beat measure, beats 2 and 4 are emphasised rather than beats 1 and 3.
A form of polyrhythm, where a rhythm is used simultaneously with another rhythm.
One unit of hypermeter, generally a measure.
Same as an anacrusis where notes appear before the start of a measure and is generally an incomplete measure that is completed at the end of the piece.
Four pulses per measure. Is also called common time.
Reference at the beginning of a musical score that tells us the number and type of beats per bar. The top number indicates the amount of beat; the bottom button indicates the type of beat, such as minim, crotchet or quaver.
Meters that have even divisions of beats in a bar. In these meters, the beats can be divided into 2.
Meters that have odd divisions of beats in a a bar. In these meters, the beats are divided by 3 instead of 2.
The use of more than one meter in a piece of music. Commonly seen in some folk music. Also called multimeter.
A piece that has no meter and there is no identifiable pulse or beat.
A high-level metric grouping that interprets groups of measures as though they were groups of beats within a single measure. Hypermetric analyses may label entire bars of music as metrically strong or weak.
Where the beat varies and the measure stays constant. For example, in a 4:3 polyrhythm, one part plays 4/4 while the other plays ¾. But the ¾ beats are stretched so that three beats of ¾ are played in the same time as four beats of 4/4.
The modulation or change of meter in a piece of music.
Like a steady beat, is easy to follow and predictable in a composition.
Also known as free rhythm and is often improvised for expression. Free rhythm may be heard at the beginning of a piece of music as an introduction to the composition.
Refers to the use of two or more conflicting rhythm patterns or accents at the same time. Often occurs in heavily syncopated pieces.
A type of polyrhythm where two meters are played at the same time.
A rhythm in which larger periods of time are constructed by joining end to end a series of units into larger units of unequal length. E.g. 5/8 is an ________ meter because it is a combination of 2/8 and 3/8 back to back.
A rhythm in which a larger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units. E.g. 4/4/ is a divisive meter because it is a combination of two 2/4 units.
Where a dot is placed after the note value to indicate an increase in duration of the note by adding half of the original notes value on. Also called augmentation dots.
Double dotted notes
Where you add on half the value of the value you added onto the original note.
Any rhythm that involves dividing the beat into unexpected subdivisions within the given time signature.
Playing three notes in the space of two. E.g. Quaver triplets would mean playing 3 quavers in the space of two quavers
Playing two notes in the space of three.
Where 5 notes would be played in the space of 4.
Representing sounds in music as notes on stave; also known as conventional notation.
A way to express patterns in music in a visual or diagrammatic way, as an alternative to traditional music notation.
A constantly repeated musical phrase in the same instrument or voice. Can be rhythmic, melodic or harmonic.
Reiteration of a pattern, either immediately after its first statement or throughout the piece of music, as a unifying feature.
An emphasis on the weak or off beats. Composers use it through accents (Accented ____________), rests (missing note ____________), and ties (suspended ____________).
A rhythmic fragment that is repeated in a piece of music either immediately or throughout the piece as a unifying feature.
A pattern that is restated by the same or a different instrument as a unifying feature.
A repeated pattern, either melodic or chordal, that is usually a few bars in length and usually associated with jazz or rock music.
Stresses placed on particular notes for expression.
Refers to a note that is played or sung before a strong beat - for example, a quaver before the first beat of a bar - anticipating the phrase.
A pattern of syncopated beats with two beats played in the time of three, or three in the time of two.
A pattern that is repeated with the notes half their previous duration.
A pattern that is repeated with the notes double their previous duration.
A feel or 'groove' heard in jazz, especially in 'swing' music, based on two emphasized subdivisions of the beat.
Heard in rock and popular music in which the pop/rock drum pattern is usually stressed.
Layers refer to the grouping of performing media in a piece of music. Layers may be analyzed vertically as well as horizontally in a score, looking specifically at the instrumental or vocal groupings.
Slow and solemn, slower than largo
Slow and dignified; stately
Slow, but not as slow as largo
Another term for becoming slower
Rather slow (but faster than adagio)
Moderately slow, but moving, walking
Quickly, not as fast as allegro
Another tempo word for slow and dignified
A slowing of tempo, often accompanied by legato playing
Marks a note to be held or sustained longer then its written value.
Very very fast, as fast as possible
Another term for accelerating.
Slowing down and broadening, becoming more stately and majestic, possibly louder
Decelerating in speed
Decelerating in speed
Free flowing and exempt from steady rhythm. A flexible tempo using slight variations of speed to enhance musical expression
Holding or sustaining a single note for its full value.
The accompaniment must follow the singer who can speed up and slow down at will.
In strict tempo at a marching pace (e.g. 120 BPM)
Return to previous tempo
At the same speed. This includes if time signature changes.
A change in pulse rate (tempo) and/or pulse grouping (subdivision) which is derived from a note value or grouping heard before the change.
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