CS8 Midterm 3


Terms in this set (...)

a common image format that include metadata
refers to extra information that describes data, like location information for image data, or author information for a word processing document.
can analyze language usage, faces, locations, and other items to match a unique individual.
scrambles plaintext into a cyphertext to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the information.
meaning the rules for transferring information among computers, often includes encryption.
cryptographic key
is used by an algorithm to transform plaintext into ciphertext or ciphertext into plaintext.
emails fraudulently ask users to provide sensitive account information by posing as legitimate companies.
computer security
is the prevention of unauthorized computer access, including viewing, changing, or destroying a computer or data.
security breach
is a case of unauthorized computer access.
A malicious security breach done by unauthorized access
A computer that has been hacked is said to be
security hole or vulnerability
is an aspect of a computer that can be used to breach security. Security holes commonly exist in operating systems.
computer virus
is a program that runs on a user's computer without permission, and spreads itself to other computers, often via email.
computer with a virus
antivirus software
is a program that looks for known viruses and strives to disable found viruses, by searching a hard drive, and/or by monitoring visited websites and downloaded files. Some company websites, like drive.google.com, check for viruses on the server before providing a file for download.
is unsolicited mass email, perhaps advertising prescription drugs for sale, or further spreading the virus.
denial of service
attack is achieved by submitting huge numbers of access requests simultaneously to one website, which overloads that site's web server, thus preventing legitimate requests from being handled (those requests are denied service). Infected computers are commonly used to carry out DoS attacks.
is undesired software that is typically installed without a user's knowledge and typically bad for the computer or user.
is malware that spreads itself via attachment to a host file, like a biological virus attaches to a human.
is malware that spreads itself without using a host file.
is malware that a user installs believing the software to be legitimate, but the software actually has a malicious purpose.
is malware that displays advertisements to the user, commonly in a web browser.
is malware that collects information from a computer without the user's knowledge.
two-step verification
helps secure a user's account by requiring the user during sign in to enter a temporary code appearing on the user's mobile phone, which the user usually carries.
email messages before sending, resulting in unreadable text, and requiring use of special codes known as keys to decrypt the message.
internet scam
is a dishonest scheme or fraud using the Internet. The Internet has been filled with scams since the Internet's rise in the 1990's.
is an Internet scam that baits a user to share sensitive information like a password or credit card number.
419 Scam or Nigerian Scam
a particular scam where the scammer establishes contact with an individual to help with a business transaction like transferring money out of a country, for which the individual will supposedly receive a large payment.
Craigslist scam
is an Internet scam where a seller receives an email from a buyer offering to buy an item. The buyer pays by check (or money order) and requests immediate shipment of the item.
is unwanted mass-sent email
involves converting a message into an unreadable form (encryption), and converting that message back into a readable form (decryption), using secret conversion techniques that only the sender and intended receiver know.
is a number (or text string) used to encrypt or decrypt messages
symmetric-key cryptography
the sender and receiver use the same key for encryption and decryption (symmetric refers to both sides being the same, in this case the sender and receiver keys both being the same).
Public-key cryptography
uses two keys: A public key the sender uses to create encrypted messages, and a mathematically-related private key that the receiver can use to decrypt messages encrypted by that public key.
denial of service
attack is achieved by submitting huge numbers of access requests simultaneously to one target website, causing that site's web server to be overloaded, thus preventing legitimate requests from being handled (those requests are "denied service").
Distributed DOS
DoS attack using multiple (distributed) computers is also known as a
is a common business term referring to company A using company B to do work that might otherwise have been done by the company A's employees.
is a term that developed with the web, referring to getting work done via a community of web users (the "crowd"). The term is a combination of crowd and outsourcing.
someone requests funding for a company, product, idea, cause, etc., and users choose to contribute.
is the conducting of business transactions on the web.
companies that do business in physical stores.
A company (like Amazon) sells goods/services directly to people. B2C is likely the best-known e-commerce category.
A company (like eBay) enables people to sell goods/services to each other. C2C is likely the second best-known e-commerce category.
Business to business
A business sells goods/services to another business.
is one of the best-known B2C e-commerce companies, started in 1994 as an online book seller, but today selling a vast array of products to consumers
is one of the best-known C2C e-commerce companies, started in 1995 to support online auctioning mostly of used goods, but today selling new and used items in auction or non-auction format. 2014 revenue was nearly $20 billion.
another C2C e-commerce company, started in 1995 by Craig Newmark in San Francisco as an email list for friends of items for sale, now allowing users to sell goods/services to one another, replacing what used to be known as newspaper "classified" ads.
is a large Chinese e-commerce company that started as B2B in 1999 to connect manufacturers with overseas buyers, then introduced C2C similar to eBay, and B2C similar to Amazon. 2014 revenue was nearly $10 billion.
online dating service
helps people meet romantic partners. A user can post a profile, describing background, interests, goals, desirable qualities in a partner, etc
is the science of designing things for easy safe use by people. While using computers may seem safer than using other kinds of equipment, computer use has the potential for causing physical harm
carpal tunnel syndrome
in which a nerve in the wrist becomes compressed, causing pain, numbness, and tingling in the hand, arm, or shoulder.